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Newsgroup FAQ's: news.answers/robotics-faq/part3 (Kevin Dowling)
Carnegie-Mellon University, School of Computer Science
[Show all headers] [Show raw text] 16 Sep 1996 05:25:27 GMT
This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions and their answers about robotics. It should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the comp.robotics newsgroups
Archive-name: robotics-faq/part3
Last Modified:  Mon Sep 16 01:00:38 EDT 1996
  This FAQ was compiled and written by Kevin Dowling with numerous
  contributions by readers of comp.robotics. Acknowledgements are listed
  at the end of the FAQ.
  This post, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1995 Kevin
  Dowling. Distribution through any means other than regular Usenet
  channels must be by permission. The removal of this notice is
  This FAQ may be posted to any USENET newsgroup, on-line service, or
  BBS as long as it or the section is posted in its entirety and
  includes this copyright statement. This FAQ may not be distributed for
  financial gain. This FAQ may not be included in commercial collections
  or compilations without express permission from the author.
  Please send changes, additions, suggestions and questions to:
Kevin Dowling                  tel:    412.268.8830
Robotics Institute              fax:    412.268.5895
Carnegie Mellon University      net:    [2]
Pittsburgh, PA 15213            url:    [3]

    This FAQ may be referenced as:
  Dowling, Kevin (1995) "Robotics: comp.robotics Frequently Asked
  Questions" Available as a hypertext document at 90+ pages.
  Last-Modified: Thu Dec 7 16:40:11 1995
    [4]Kevin Dowling <>

                    [6] What University Programs are there?
  [3][6.1] Graduate Programs in Robotics
  [4][6.2] Student Who's Who
  Any good four-year school undoubtedly offers robotics courses within
  engineering programs. Departments of mechanical and electrical
  engineering and computer science are all good candidates for
  coursework in Robotics. However, a number of schools have established
  track records with a focus on robotics and those are listed here.
[6.1] Graduate Programs in Robotics

  This list is grouped by countries including the United States,
  Australia, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Many
  European and Asian universities are not represented and should be.
  Please drop me a line if you have information on those that should be
    [6]University of Western Australia
    [8]McGill University
    [9]University of Alberta
    [11]Helsinki University of Technology
    [13]University of Paris
    [15]Waseda University
    [17]Lulea University of Technology
    [19]Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  [20]United Kingdom
    [21]Bristol University
    [22]Edinburgh University (UK)
    [23]Hull University, UK
    [24]Reading University, UK
    [25]Salford University
    [26]University of Birmingham
    [27]University of Essex (UK)
    [28]University of Manchester
    [29]University of Oxford
    [30]University of Surrey
    [31]University of the West of England at Bristol, U.K.
  [32]United States
    [33]Boston University
    [34]Brandeis University
    [35]California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
    [36]Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
    [37]Colorado School of Mines
    [38]Clemson University
    [40]Georgia Institute of Technology
    [42]Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
    [43]New York University (NYU)
    [44]North Carolina State University
    [45]Northeastern University
    [47]Rennsalear Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
    [48]Stanford University
    [49]University of California at Berkeley
    [50]University of Iowa
    [51]University of Kansas
    [52]University of Kentucky
    [53]University of Massachusetts
    [54]University of Michigan
    [55]University of Pennsylvania.
    [56]University of Rochester
    [57]University of Southern California (USC)
    [58]University of Maryland
    [59]The University of Texas at Arlington
    [60]University of Wisconsin-Madison
    [61]University of Utah
    [62]Yale University
    [63]Wilkes University

  University of Western Australia
  Some neat telerobotic work can be found at

  McGill University
    Center for Intelligent Machines
    McGill University
    McConnell Engineering Building, Room 420
    3480 University Street
    Montreal, Que, Canada H3A 2A7
    School of Computer Science
    McGill University
    McConnell Engineering Building, Room 420
    3480 University Street
    Montreal, Que, Canada H3A 2A7
  There is a web page and ftp archive at [65]
  The McGill Centre for Intelligent Machines, CIM, was founded in 1985
  to provide researchers in robotics, computer vision, speech
  recognition, and systems and control with a context in which to pursue
  their common goal: the understanding and creation of systems which
  exhibit intelligent behaviour. The three main research foci are
  perception, robotics and control theory. The Centre now includes
  faculty members and graduate students from five departments:
  Electrical, Mechanical, Biomedical, and Mining and Metallurgical
  Engineering, and the School of Computer Science.
  The center itself does not have a degree program, rather students
  enroll in one of the associated departments and gain access by being
  supervised a faculty member who is also a CIM member. There are
  research programs directly related to computer vision, robot
  mechanical systems, walking machines, mobile robotics, etc.
  CIM Members: J. Angeles, P.R. Belanger, M. Buehler, P.E. Caines, L.
  Daneshmend, R. De Mori, G. Dudek, F. Ferrie, J. Hollerbach, V.
  Hayward, D. Levanony, M.D. Levine, A. Malowany, H. Michalska, J. Owen,
  E. Papadopoulos, M. Verma, S. Whitesides, G. Zames, P.J.
  Zsombor-Murray, S.W. Zucker
  University of Alberta
    Edmontom, Alberta
    Canada T6H 2H1
  _Center for Machine Intelligence and Robotics_
  Robotics Research Laboratory, Department of Computing Science _Faculty_
  Ron Kube

  Helsinki University of Technology
  Research includes outdoor walking machines, all-terrain autonomous
  vehicle and many other projects. See [66]Automation Home Page and
  [67]Research Home page

  University of Paris
  INRIA (Nice) recently started a Phd program in Robotics.

  [68]Waseda University Tokyo, Japan
  Humanoid Research Laboratory (HUREL), Advanced Research Center for
  Science and Engineering
  [69]Humanoid Project

  Lulea University of Technology
  _Department of Robotics and Automation_
    S-971 87 LULEE
  WWW: [70]

  Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  _The Institute of Robotics_
  ETH offers a Postgrad diploma in Mechatronics.
  The Institute of Robotics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  (ETH) constitutes about 40 members of staff (including Ph.D.
  students). The main research theme is Intelligent Interactive
  Mechines. That is to say developing intelligent robots that in
  cooperation with man solves difficult tasks. The institute takes its
  students from the departments of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical
  Engineering and Computer Science. Robotics lectures and project work
  is offered to undergraduate students. In addition there is the
  "Nachdiplom" in mechatronics (somewhere near a M.Sc.) where robotics
  is a central theme. For further details on the "Nachdiplom" see below.
  Finally there are about 30 Ph.D. students curently registered working
  on a variety of themes and projects. Institute facilities include:
  several different robot arms including the in house developed modular
  robot arm (MODRO), mobile vehicles including the in house developed
  modular mobile robot, walking machines, supercomputing facilities,
  dedicated vision and signal processing hardware, etc.
  The head of the group is Professor G. Schweitzer.
    Institute of Robotics
    ETH-Center, LEO,
    8092 Zurich
    tel: (01) 256 35 84 (secretary)
    fax: (01) 252 02 76.
  The "Nachdiplom" in mechatronics runs over two semesters plus three
  months project/thesis work. The lectures covers: robotics, mobile
  robotics, micro robots, computer based kinematics and dynamics of
  multibody systems, control theory, magnetic bearings, real time
  software techniques, information processing with neural networks,
  computer vision, and artificial intelligence. The fees are 2400,-
  Swiss Franks, founding is available.
    H.-K. Scherrer
    Mechatronics postgraduate course
    ETH-Centre, LEO B3
    8092 Zurich
United Kingdom

  Edinburgh University
    Department of Artificial Intelligence,
    5, Forrest Hill,
    EH1 2QL
  The Department of Artificial Intelligence has robot and vision groups
  within it.
  Main interests of the robotics group include:
    * behaviour-based control of robots (both mobiles and arms)
    * hybrid control -- symbolic planning and behaviour-based actions
    * learning, both reinforcement and other types implementations of
      biological systems eg cricket ears; vertebrate learning models
    * active vision
    * real-time control
    * long survival times
    * direct-drive arm control
  As well as PhDs by research, the Department offers a one-year, taught,
  modular, Masters course in Information Technology for Knowledge-based
  Systems where one of the possible specialisations is in robotics and
  vision. This course is designed for people without specific AI
  background. One module involves the Masters students building and
  programming their own robot out of Lego and supplied electronics.
  Another module gives hands-on experience with a simple robot arm.
  Contact the Admissions Secretary Judith Gordon for information about
  _Principal Researchers_
    * John Hallam
      autonomous mobiles and survival
    * Bob Fisher
    * Chris Malcolm
      assembly robotics and hybrid systems
    * Gillian Hayes
      active vision and biological control
  University of Birmingham
  Birmingham, England
  See [71]School of Computer Science
  University of Essex
  _Brooker Laboratory for Intelligent Embedded Systems_
  Main interests of the laboratory:
    * Behavior-Based Architectures (software and hardware)
    * Active Vision
    * Collaborative AI (ie multiple agents)
    * Fuzzy and Neural Systems
    * Virtual Systems (eg robot simulation and telepresence)
    * Planning & Learning
    * Reliable Robots (ie for inaccessible or hazardous environments)
  _Principal Researchers:_
    * Victor Callaghan
    * Paul Chernett
      behavior-based architectures, virtual systems and active vision
    * Libor Spacek
      active vision and face recognition
    * Jim Doran
      Collaborative AI
    * Chang Wang
      fuzzy and neural systems
    * Edward Tsang & Sam Steel
      planning & learning
    * John Standeven &
    * Martin Colley
      reliable robotic systems
  In addition to PhDs by research, there is a one-year, taught, Masters
  course in Computer Science where it is possible to undertake robotics,
  AI or vision.
  Contact for further details of courses or for information on research. In addition some
  useful information on the laboratory can be obtained at
  University of the West of England at Bristol
  (used to be Bristol Polytechnic)
  Undergraduate Robotics is taught as part of undergraduate programs in
  engineering courses and as part of a real time computing course. The
  engineering department has in its teaching labs Puma, Adept, IBM,
  Cincinatti-Milacron and Funac robots.
  _Intelligent Autonomous Systems group_
    * Yichuang Jin, Will Wray
      Neural net control of manipulators, especially stability-based
      adaptive control. Comparative modelling of neurocontroller design
      for robotics.
    * Lawrence Bull, Owen Holland, Chris Melhuish
      Behaviour-based mobile robots, collective behaviour, reinforcement
      learning and genetic algorithms.
  _Intelligent Flexible Assembly Technology (InFACT/ALASCA Group):_
  Eureka/FAMOS Projects (EC colaborative project - academic and
  Industry) The group has a large gantry based robot designed and built
  by the group.
    * Farid Dialami, Alan Redford
      Advanced Large scale flexible assembly (Peugot cars etc), generic
    * David Eastlake (hardware), Mike Morgan(software)
      Transputer based robot control of co-operating manipulators.
  Bristol University
  Mr Khodlebandelhoo
    * Bi arm research
    * Path planning for redundant robots
    * Wall climbing robots
  Hull University
  Prof Alan Pugh
    * Garment Manufacturing
    * Arm/controller design
  University of Manchester
  _Department of Computer Science_
  The web page below describes research in mobile robotics in the areas
  of autonomous competence acquisition, learning by tuition and
  navigation. Papers are also available at this site.
  University of Oxford
  _Robotics Research Group_
  The Robotics Group currently comprises about seventy academics,
  postdoctoral research staff, overseas visitors, and graduate students.
  A broad range of topics in advanced robotics is studied in
  collaboration with industry and government establishments throughout
    * Robot Design and Control
      A number of projects are concerned with the design and control of
      compliant robot arms.
    * Parallel Architectures
      Real-time sensor-based control of systems such as robot vehicles
      is a topic of increasing interest. For low bandwidth sensors such
      sonar, the emphasis is on Transputer architectures. For high
      bandwidth sensors such as vision, hybrid SIMD/MIMD architectures
      are being developed. A rapidly growing effort is concerned with
      the design, implementation, and application of neural networks.
      Digital and hybrid digital/analog chips have been designed and are
      being fabricated. Algorithms and TTL circuits have been
      constructed for text-to-speech synthesis.
    * Vision and Active Vision
      The theory and applications of vision accounts for approximately
      one-third of the laboratory's effort. Current projects include
      edge detection and texture segmentation and the computation of
      visual motion by a parallel algorithm that estimates the optic
      flow field.
    * Sensors and Sensor Integration
      Includes laser rangefinder development in addition to analog and
      digital sonar sensors, as well as infrared rangers, have been
      developed for the AGV project (below).
    * Autonomous Guided Vehicles
      Work on a research prototype of a fielded industrial AGV cuts
      across many of the separate themes of the laboratory's work. The
      goal of the initial project is to equip the AGV with sonar,
      infrared, laser ranging, trinocular stereo, and model-based vision
      sensors to enable it to avoid unexpected obstacles and to locate
  Reading University
    * Prof Kevin Warwick
      Using neural nets in robotics and novel control algorithms.
  Salford University
  [74] or robotics work more directly at:
  [75] _Faculty_
    * Dr D.P.Barnes, Dept. Of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
      Mobile Robots Research Group.
      Autonomous mobile robot system with a behaviour-based architecture
      are designed and built with the intent to study the processes of
      cooperation with and without communication. Such an approach has
      led us up a number of paths with present work in behaviour
      synthesis and evolutionary robotics. Expertise in: Robotics,
      Sensors, Communication, Connectionist Systems, Genetic Algorithms
      and Genetic Programming. Possible studies in PhD and MSc work and
      courses at undergraduate level.
    * Ruth Aylett, Information Technology Institute
      Robot planning systems, multi-agent systems, robot architectures,
      hybrid behavioural/symbolic robots
    * Dr D.Caldwell, Dept Of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
      Multi-Functional Tactile Sensing and Feedback (Tele-taction)
      Tele-presence of an operator with a full mobile robot with two
      manipulator arms, stereo vision and sound. Tactile sensing
      datagloves are used to control the manipulators and video camera
      is used to move head. Expertise: Manipulators, Sensors,
  Tele-presence. Possible studies at PhD and MSc and courses at
  undergraduate level.
    Dr Francis Nagy
  Speech Control of a Puma-560, Control of an 'Inverted Pendulum',
  Miniature tactile sensors _Advanced Robotics Research Centre_
    * Ultrasonic wrist sensor for collision avoidance
    * Controller design
    * Stereo Vision
  University of Surrey
  Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group _Faculty_
    * Prof G A Parker (
    * John Pretlove (
      Primary Areas of Research activity:
    * 3D co-ordinate tracking system for robot metrology
    * Neural networks and expert systems for vision and inspection
    * Active stereo vision for real-time robot arm guidance
    * Design of controllable stereo vision systems.
    * Open architecture Puma controller
    * Mobile robots
    * We also offer MSc courses and undergraduate courses in automation,
    * control, mechanical engineering and CIM.
United States

  Boston University
  _Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering_
          John Baillieul
          Control of Mechanical Systems and Mathematical System Theory
  Pierre Dupont
          Robot Kinematics and Dynamics, Friction Compensation in
  Ann Stokes
          Theoretical Dynamics and Control
  Matt Berkemeier
          Legged Robots, Robot Control
  Brandeis University>
  Waltham, MA
  Brandeis has a program in autonomous agents, focusing on multi--agent
  and multi--robot systems and machine learning, headed by Maja Mataric
  For details on research directions and a photo of the available robot
  herd see:
  For graduate admission information see:
  To get more information about the Volen Center for Complex Systems,
  about the Computer Science Department, and about other faculty, see: For more information about the
  cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience programs at Brandeis see:
  California Institute of Technology
  Pasadena, CA
  Joel Burdick
          serpentine manipulation, control
  Richard Murray
          control of nonholonomic systems, grasping
  Pietro Perona
          biological and machine vision
  For more detailed information on robotics research at Caltech see
  Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
  Graduate program contact:
    Graduate Admissions Coordinator
    The Robotics Institute
    Carnegie Mellon University
    5000 Forbes Avenue
    Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  [77]The Robotics Institute is the world's largest academic
  organization devoted to robotics. The Robotics Institute (RI) has over
  45 full-time faculty, over 100 technical staff, 150 graduate students
  (90 in the RI program) and 25 visitors and post-docs. The Robotics
  Institute is part of CMU's [78]School of Computer Science
  The Robotics Institute also offers a [79]Robotics PhD and students
  from other programs (e.g. engineering and computer science) also do
  research in the Institute. Institute development spans the spectrum
  from fundamental and basic research to development and integration of
  complete systems for specific applications. Research includes many
  aspects of mobile robots, computer integrated manufacturing, rapid
  prototyping, sensors, vision, navigation, learning and architectures.
  The RI PhD program is comprised of a set of qualifiers and a program
  of research leading to a thesis and the degree.
  The many centers and laboratories include the [80]National Robotics
  Engineering Consortium (NREC), a facility and organization devoted to
  technology transfer between laboratory and companies.
  Facilities include about a dozen mobile systems with more under design
  and construction. Facilities include over 2000m^2 of offices and over
  15,000 m^2 of laboratory and highbay space. Facilities available
  include many mobile robots, manipulator systems and lots of computer
  Takeo Kanade
          Vision and Autonomous Systems Center
  Pradeep Khosla
          Advanced Manipulator Laboartory
  Matt Mason
          Manipulation Laboratory
  Tom Mitchell
          Learning Robots Lab
  Hans Moravec
          Mobile Robots Lab
  Mel Seigel
          Sensors Laboratory (non vision)
  Red Whittaker
          Field Robotics Center
  and many others.....
  Case Western Reserve University
  Department of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics
    Glennan Building
    10900 Euclid Avenue
    Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    Phone (216)368-4088
    Fax (216)368-2668
  See [81]file://
  Electrical engineering at CWRU is a broad, dynamic field offering a
  great diversity of career opportunities in areas such as microwave and
  rf communications, microprocessor-based digital control systems,
  robotics, solid state microelectronics, signal processing, and
  intelligent systems. The Department of Electrical Engineering and
  Applied Physics offers Bachelor of Science in Engineering, Master of
  Science in Electrical Engineering, Master of Engineering, and Doctor
  of Philosophy degree programs which provide preparation for work in
  these areas. The department offers a minor in electrical engineering
  for bachelor's degree students in other engineering disciplines as
  well as a minor in electronics for bachelor's degree students enrolled
  in the College of Arts and Science.
  Colorado School of Mines
  _Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory_
  _Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences_
  The Colorado School of Mines is a state university, internationally
  renowned in the energy, materials, and resource fields, attracting
  outstanding students in a broad range of science and engineering
  disciplines. The School of Mines is strongly committed to quality
  teaching and research. CSM provides an attractive campus environment,
  a collegial atmosphere, relatively small size (3000 students, about
  30% in graduate programs), and an ideal location in the foothills of
  the Rocky Mountains 13 miles from downtown Denver and an hour from
  most ski areas.
  The Dept. of Mathematical and Computer Sciences offers BS, MS, and PhD
  degrees under the department title. With a faculty of 18 tenured and
  tenure track members, the department annually receives roughly a
  million dollars in grants; 116 undergraduate students and 70 graduate
  students are currently enrolled in ou r degree programs. The computer
  science group within the department has a strong focus in AI (symbolic
  and neural nets) and database and parallel processing syst ems. The
  Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory is a facility devoted to
  basic and interdisciplinary research, technology transfer, and
  hands-on education in artificial intelligence through robotics.
  Research and technology transfer efforts concentrate on the reduction
  of human risk in hazardous situations, stewardship of the environment,
  and/or improvement of the quality of life throug h better
  manufacturing processes. Research in the MR/MP laboratory is supported
  by NSF, ARPA, NASA, and local industries.
  For more information, please send email to Dr. Robin R. Murphy, Include a brief summary of your
  educational (with GPA) and work experience, what your research
  interests are, and GRE scores.
  Clemson University (CU)
    Graduate program contact:
    Robotics and Mechatronics (RAM) Laboratory
    Center for Advanced Manufacturing
    Clemson University
    Clemson SC 29634
    Lab Phone: 864-656-6988
    Fax: 864-656-7220
  For more information browse our web site at
  [82] or contact:
  Dr. Darren Dawson (ECE) [83]
  Tel: (864) 656-5924
  Fax: (864) 656-7220
  [84]http://crb.eng.clemson. edu/advisor/dawson.htm
  Dr. Chris Rahn (ME) [85]
  Tel: (864) 656-5261
  Fax: (864) 656-4435
  [86]http://www.eng.clemson .edu/~cdrahn/resume.html
    Summary of Laboratory Activities
    * Research and Development
    * Education
    * Technology Transfer
    * Classroom/Laboratory Workshops
    * Faculty/Student Summer Interns
    Electrical and Computer Engineering RAM Personnel
    * Darren Dawson, Professor
    * John Luh, McQueen Quattlebaum Professor
    Mechanical Engineering RAM Personnel
    * Chris Rahn, Assistant Professor
    * Frank Paul, McQueen Quattlebaum Professor
  Approximately 25 Ph.D and Masters Thesis Students from both ECE and ME
    RAM Research Facilities
    * Robotics Lab: Seven Robot Stations Including a Dual Robot Arm
      Workcell and two Direct Drive Robot Manipulators
    * Computational Lab: Cluster of Personal Computers and Workstations
    * Union Camp Lab: Motor Drive Equipment, a Magnetic Bearing, and
      Real Time Workstations
    * Environmental Restoration Lab: Virtual Reality Based Equipment and
    * Rapid Isothermal Processing Lab: Three Chemical Vapor Deposition
    * Square D Lab: Three Vibration Control Testbeds
    RAM Research Thrust Areas
    * Advanced Computer-Based Software Interfaces and Position/force
      Control Systems for Robot Manipulator Systems
    * Dynamic Modeling Techniques and Tension Controllers for High Speed
      Transport of Fibers and Webs
    * High Precision Position Controllers for Electric Motors and
      Magnetic Bearings
    * Control Algorithms for Payload Swing Reduction for Overhead Cranes
    * Vibration Control Techniques for Flexible Beams and Cables
    * Closed-Loop Modeling, Control, Measurement, Techniques for
      Semiconductor Manufacturing (Chemical Vapor Deposition)
  Ithaca, NY Mechanical Engineering Bruce Donald
  Georgia Institute of Technology
  _Atlanta, GA_
  _Georgia Institute of Technology Robotics Activities_
  See also: [87]MRLHome.html Application study areas include:
    * Servo control and low level coordination
    * Machine intelligence and high level control
    * Design, sensors and actuators
    * Human/machine interface
  Robot applications are in areas such as manufacturing {K. Lee} poultry
  processing {W. Daley, G. McMurray, J.C. Thompson} and nuclear waste
  inspection and cleanup {R. Arkin, W. Book, S. Dickerson, T. Collins,
  A. Henshaw} are underway.
  Several robotics researchers are regularly involved in a student
  aerial robot design competition in which concurrent engineering
  concepts are being used to tailor the characteristics of the
  system.{D. Schrage} This competition, held at Georgia Tech and
  sponsored by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, has been
  won by Georgia Tech entries for two of the three years it has been
  Current research topics and researchers:
    * Long arm control
      W. Book
    * Parallel actuation of manipulators
      K. Lee
    * 3DOF direct drive actuator
      K. Lee
    * Special purpose end-effectors
      R. Bohlander, H. Lipk
    * Parallel processing computer architectures for robot sensing and
      R. Bohlander, C. Alford, T. Collins, A. Henshaw
    * Laser generated ultrasound to sense structure of materials
      C. Ume
    * Gallium arsenide based rad-hard electronics.
      W. Hunt
    * Autonmous vehicles positioning
      S. Dickerson
    * Collision avoidance techniques
      R. Arkin, W. Book
    * Flexible arm control
      W. Book
    * Two arm coordinated motion.
      Alford, Vachtsevanos
    * Advanced feedback control, learning control, bounded uncertainty
      approach, applications to rigid and flexible manipulators, force
      control .
      N Sadegh, Y Chen, W. Book
    * Architectures, Framework for reactive control and hierarchical
      planning, vision feedback, fuzzy logic application
      Arkin, D. Lawton, G Vachtsevanos
    * Human Computer Interaction
      M Kelly, H. Lipkin
  Roger Brockett
  Iowa State University
  _Iowa Center for Emerging Manufacturing Technology_
  _Ames, Iowa 50011_
  See also: [88]http://
  Iowa State University has one of the better visualization labs in the
  country. The lab consists of mainly mechanical engineers and computer
  Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science both have strong robotics
  efforts. Asada, Slotine, Brooks, Raibert and others are known and
  respected for their work in direct-drive arm, control techniques,
  architectures, running machines etc.
  New York University (NYU)
  NYU's Department of Computer Science home page is at:
  [89] _Degrees:_
  We offer Ph.D. and MS in computer science. Ph.D. students may work
  thesis research in robotics. MS students may work on a thesis (as a
  substitute for one course). All graduate students are eligible to
  enroll in Advaned Laboratory and work on a project in robotics.
  Qualified undergraduates may take Independent Study.
  The Department of Computer Science offers graduate and undergraduate
  courses in robotics, computer vision, AI and neural computation. There
  is also a weekly robotics colloquim For admissions information,
  _Research (1994):_
    * Multimedia (Schwartz, Wallace, Perlin) See Below
    * 3-D target recognition (Hummel)
    * Grasp Metrics (Mishra, Yap)
    * Reactive Robotics (Mishra)
    * Wavelets and Compression (Mallat)
    * Human Body Animation (Perlin)
    * Ken Perlin (Computer Graphics, Multimedia)
    * Jacob T. Schwartz (Robotics, Multimedia, Computational Logic)
    * Bud Mishra (Robotics, Theory of Computation)
    * Chee Yap (Robotics, Computational Geometry)
    * Stephane Mallat (Wavelets, Computer Vision)
    * Robert Hummel (Computer Vision)
  _What is Multimedia Robotics?_
  "Multimedia Robotics" is a new area of computer science concerning new
  markets for robotics technology, emphasizing the emerging areas of
  virtual reality and telepresence, animation and entertainment, and
  bioscience material processing.
  Wrench Displays
          Force and Torque input/output devices for user interfaces, also
          called "haptic displays".
  Bioscience Applications
          Microrobots in DNA micromanipulation,
          Wrench displays for surgical VR training applications,
          Microsurgical instruments
  Advanced actuators for VR and Multimedia
          Scaling theory and dynamics of piezeoelectrics, shape memory
          metals, electromagnetics and other new actuator technolgies.
          Robotics and the WWW, Video Telephony, Telesensuality
  Research underway at NYU represents each of these four areas.
  North Carolina State Univerisity
  Raleigh, NC Professor Ren Luo tel: 919.515.5199
  [90]Northeastern University> Boston, MA 02115 The Marine Systems
  Engineering Laboratory (MSEL) of Northeastern University is pleased to
  announce its presence on the World Wide Web at [91]MSEL Home Page MSEL
  is a small, internationally-known lab that focuses on research in
  ocean engineering, in particular autonomous underwater vehicles
  (AUVs). AUVs are unmanned, untethered submersibles that are capable of
  carrying out missions autonomously. MSEL developed one of the first
  AUVs, EAVE-EAST. Currently, the EAVE AUVs are in their third
  generation, the EAVE-III vehicles. The lab maintains two EAVE-III
  vehicles for both single-agent and multiagent research. The lab is
  also developing a long-range AUV (LRAUV) for extended full-ocean depth
  missions. We have active research programs focusing on intelligent AUV
  control, AUV control architectural issues, long-range AUV development
  for ocean science applications, and multiple AUV systems and
  cooperative distributed problem solving.
  [92]Purdue University
  West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
  Here's a pointer to Purdue's [93]Robot Vision Lab
    * [94]Avi Kak: Vision and mobile robots
    * Antti Koivo: Manipulation
    * Mirek Skibiniewski: Construction Robotics
    * Anthony Maciejewski: Kinematics of redundant robotic arms,
      computer graphic techniques for animation, visualization
    * George Lee: Robot Control, Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks
    * Akio Kosaka Vision-based navigation for mobile robots
  Rennsalear Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
    * George Saridis
    * Arthur Sanderson
    * Jon Wenn
  About 20 PhD and 30 MS students. Path planning and multi-arm control
  are current focus.
  Stanford University
    Palo Alto, CA
  _Mechanical Engineering:_
    * Bernard Roth (kinematics of manipulators)
    * Mark Cutkosky: destrous manipulation and concurrent manufacturing
    * Larry Liefer (rehabilitation, user interfaces)
  _CS Department:_
    * Nils Nilsson
    * Mike Genesereth
    * Jean-Claude Latombe (path planning and geometric reasoning)
    * Leo Guibas (geometric reasoning)
    * Tom Binford (vision)
    * Yoav Shoham (agents)
    * Oussama Khatib
  _Aerospace Robotics Laboratory:_
    * Bob Cannon
      teleoperation, free flyers, space robotics, flexible manipulators
  University of California at Berkeley
  _Deparment of EE&CS_
    * Prof. J. Canny
      motion planning
    * Prof. R. Fearing
      tactile sensing, dextrous manipulation
    * Prof. J. Malik
      computer vision
    * Prof. S. Sastry
      multi-fingered hands, control
  _Dept. of Optometry/EE&CS_
    * Prof. L. Stark
  _Dept. of Mechanical Engineering_
    * Prof. R. Horowitz
      control of robotic manipulators
    * Prof. H. Kazerooni
      man-robotic systems
    * Prof. M. Tomizuka
      control of robotic manipulators
    * Richard Muller
      micro mechanisms
  University of Kansas
  Space Technology Center (Telerobotics)
  University of Kentucky
  Center for Robotics and Manufacturing Systems (founded 1990)
  University of Massachusetts
  _Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics_
  Computer Science Department
  www: [96]
          Rod Grupen
          Robin Popplestone
  The lab is equipped with two General Electric P-50 robots, two GE A4s,
  a Zebra Zero, and a Denning mobile platform. In addition, the P-50s
  are fitted with a 4-fingered Utah/MIT and a 3-fingered Stanford/JPL*
  dexterous hand, respectively. The lab includes VxWorks distributed VME
  controllers and an experimental real-time kernel (Spring kernel).
  Research conducted at the lab includes:
    * controller composition for coordinating multiple robots
    * grasp planning
    * geometric reasoning for robust assembly & fine motion control
    * learning for admittance control & path optimization
    * biological models of motor planning
    * proprioceptive, tactile, & visual model acquisition
    * trajectory planning, coarse reaching
    * state-space decomposition
  The laboratory also engages in collaborative research with the
  Computer Vision (A. Hanson, E. Riseman, directors) and Adaptive
  Networks (A. Barto, director) groups within the department.
  University of Michigan
    Ann Arbor, MI
  Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science are
  relevant to robotics research. Research includes includes machine
  vision, systems and control, multiple cooperating agents (arms and
  mobile), and application of SOAR to robots (arms and mobile) in
  conjunction with SOAR groups at CMU and elsewhere.
  Umich robotics work can be found at [97]Umich Robotics _Contacts_
    * Johann Borenstein [98]
    * Yorem Koren [99]
  University of Pennsylvania.
  UPenn offers Masters and PhD programs in Robotics and Robotics related
  fields of study. These programs are offered through the Departments of
  Computer and Information Science, Systems Engineering, and Mechanical
  Engineering and Applied Mechanics. The bulk of the robotics research
  is conducted in the inter-disciplinary General Robotics and Active
  Sensory Perception (GRASP) laboratory. [100]GRASP Web SiteActive areas
  of research are Telerobotics, Multiple Arm Control, Robotic Vision,
  Learning Control, Multi-agent Robotics and Mechanical Design.
    * R. Bajcsy
    * R.P. Paul
    * Vijay Kumar
    * Max Mintz
    * Jim Ostrowski
    * Eero Simoncelli
  University of Rochester
  _Computer Science Department_
  Well known Computer Vision group. See the following web pages:
  University of Southern California (USC)
  USC has a new MS Program called: Master of Science in Computer Science
  with specialization in Robotics & Automation
  This Master of Science program prepares graduates for the future of
  manufacturing engineering. Emphasized areas include manufacturing as
  an international enterprise, and information engineering, with
  concentrations in specialties including multimedia, CAD for rapid
  prototyping, electronic packaging, magnetic recording, and
  manufacturing management. Classroom teaching is transferred into a
  practical format and weekly seminars. A nine month internship is a key
  part of the practical track for this Program. Students have been
  placed in internships with companies such as Sony, Hewlett-Packard,
  Qualcomm, Alcoa Electronic Packaging, Kyocera America, Maxtor
  Corporation, Spectragraphics, StorageTek, and Valor Electronics.
  Financial aid is available. Preferential assistance will be given to
  displaced defense industry professionals.
  For information on applying to the Program, or accessing an intern for
  your company, e-mail [103] or contact Vivian Shinmoto
  at 619-534-7398. MS program seeks to prepare students for a career in
  the application of Computer Science to design, manufacturing, and
  robotics. It also serves as an introduction to this area for students
  who wish to pursue advanced studies and research leading to a Ph.D. A
  major goal is to produce a steady stream of graduates who are
  qualified to tackle challenging problems in the development of
  software for CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing) and
  There is a strong focus on designing and building within the program
  Exposure to the practical aspects (and difficulties) of robotics and
  automation is strongly encouraged through laboratory work, and an
  optional thesis, conducted in collaboration with industry and research
  See also [104]
  For additional information, a complete set of degree requirements, and
  application materials, contact our Student Coordinator:
    Ms. Amy Yung
    Computer Science Department
    University of Southern California
    Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781
    tel: 213.740.4499
    * George Bekey
      Assembly planning, design for assembly, neural nets for robot
      control, autonomous robots.
    * Ken Goldberg
      Motion planning, grasping, machine learning.
    * Sukhan Lee
      Assembly planning, sensor-based manipulation.
    * Gerard Medioni
      Computer vision.
    * Ramakant Nevatia
      Computer vision.
    * Keith Price
      Computer vision.
    * Aristides Requicha
      Geometric modeling, geometric uncertainty, planning for
      manufacture and inspection
  About twenty other faculty member associated with the Institute for
  Robotics and Intelligent Systems and many others associated with USC's
  Information Sciences Institute (ISI).
  A Brochure can be obtained from:
    Ken Goldberg, Asst Professor
    IRIS, Dept of Computer Science
    Powell Hall Room 204
    University of Southern California
    Los Angeles, CA 90089-0273
  University of Maryland
    * Dave Akin
      Director, Space Systems Laboratory.
  Facilties include a large neutral bouyancy tank, and a number of
  free-flying teleoperators used underwater in the NBT. Much
  teleoperations research. Dave has flown shuttle experiments and his
  research is in the areas of teleoperation, control, man-machine
  interaction and is one of the very few in the robotics community to
  fly hardware in space.
  University of Notre Dame
    South Bend, Indiana
  The Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the
  University of Notre Dame offers several courses which are directed
  toward an fundamental understanding of the mechanics, kinematics,
  estimation and control theory, and computer programming which are
  important considerations in the design of robotic systems. Of special
  interest is a novel approach for achieving robust and precise
  vision-based control of manipulators - "camera-space manipulation".
  Doctoral recipients >from this program are teaching and doing research
  in tenure-track positions at US universities. For more information,
  see, on the World-Wide Web: [105]Skaar Home.html [106]AME
  HomePage.html or contact Prof. Steven B. Skaar, Director of Graduate
  Studies, [107]steven.b.skaar.1@ND.EDU Research in Vision-Based
  Robotics Using Estimation
  The multimedia monograph discusses recent experimental and theoretical
  work conducted at the University of Notre Dame aimed at using methods
  of estimation to achieve accurate, robust and reliable vision-based
  guidance of various kinds of mechanisms, including typical holonomic
  robots, fork-lifts and other vehicles. The monograph is divided into
  two parts: Part 1 discusses the method of "camera-space manipulation"
  and is in the early stages of development. Part 2 discusses
  vision-based navigation of a vehicle. Both parts include several
  QuickTime movie illustrations of existing experiments, and part 2
  includes 3-D animations for illustration of principles.
  The University of Texas at Arlington
    F.L. Lewis
    Automation and Robotics Research Institute
    University of Texas at Arlington
    7300 Jack Newell Blvd S
    Ft. Worth, TX 76118
    tel: 817.794.5972
    fax: 817.794.5952
  UT Arlington is located in the heart of the Dallas / Ft. Worth
  metroplex. The EE department current has 33 faculty and the CSE
  department has 20 faculty. Participating students will also be able to
  conduct research at the Automation and Robotics Research Institute
  located in Ft. Worth.
  University of Wisconsin-Madison
  _Mechanical Engineering & Electrical Engineering_
    * Roland Chin
      machine vision, pattern recognition
    * Neil Duffie
      teleoperation, autonomous systems, sensors
    * Robert Lorenz
      actuators and sensors, robot control algorithms
    * Vladimir Lumelsky
      motion planning, real-time sensing and navigation
  _Computer Science:_
    * Charles Dyer
      machine vision
  _Wisconsin Center for Space Robotics and Automation (WCSAR)_
  Interdepartmental NASA center: work is done on various applications of
  robotic systems for space.
  University of Utah
    Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
    Steve Jacobsen
    Center for Engineering Design
    3176 MEB
  Hands, manipulators, biomedical applications, teleoperation. Micro
  electro-mechanical systems design.
  Yale University
  There is a broad spectrum of research activities in vision and
  robotics at Yale. The members of this group include faculty from
  Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Psychology, Neuroscience,
  and the Yale Medical School. Active areas of research include machine
  vision, humanand computer object recognition, geometric reasoning,
  mobile robotics, sensor-based manipulation, control of highly dynamic
  nonlinear systems, planning, and learning. There is also a wide
  spectrum of interdisciplinary work integrating robotics and machine
    * James S. Duncan
      Geometric/physical models for analysing biomedical images.
    * Gregory D. Hager
      Sensor-based/task-directed decision-making and planning.
    * David J. Kriegman
      Model-based object recognition, mobile robot navigation.
    * Drew McDermott
      Planning and scheduling reactive behavior, knowledge
      representation, cognitive mapping.
    * Eric Mjolsness
      Neural network approaches to vision and visual memory.
    * Pat Sharpe
      Computational models of hippocampal spatial learning.
    * Michael J. Tarr
      Behavioral and computational approaches to visual cognition.
    * Kenneth Yip Automated reasoning about complex dynamical systems.
  Wilkes University
    Wilkes-Barre, PA
  [108]Wilkes University is a small, private university located in
  Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Despite its size, Wilkes is well equipped
  with robotics laboratories and has two faculty ( [109]Dr. C.R. Mirman
  Ph.D. in Robotics from the University of Illinois at Chicago and
  [110]Dr. M.R. Stein, Ph.D. in Robotics from the University of
  Pennsylvania) to sponsor graduate robotics research. Robotics is an
  integral part of the undergraduate Mechanical Engineering curriculum,
  and may be a topic for graduate study in Electrical Engineering.
  Wilkes offers a BS in Mechanical Engineering and an MS and Ph.D.
  degree in Electrical Engineering. See also their [111]Robotics and
  Automation page.
[6.2] Student Who's Who

  An useful additional source of information is the graduate student
  guide compiled by Ron Kube . It is a list of graduate students, their
  universities, and areas of research. The list is updated monthly and
  can be found at
  [112] and is also available
  on the Web as:
  The list is a good starting point for those interested in graduate
  programs and for those looking for individuals with similar research
  Last-Modified: Fri Aug 30 02:19:04 1996
    [114]Kevin Dowling <>


  1. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/copyright.html
  2. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/TOC.html
  3. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/6.html#6.1
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  81. file://
  88. http://
  90. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/

  98. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/">href="file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/">file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/
  99. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/">href="file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/">file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/
107. mailto: steven.b.skaar.1@ND.EDU
                [7] What is the State of the Robot Industry?
  In general, there was a significant slump in the mid to late 1980's in
  industrial robotics. However in the early 1990's sales and number have
  rebounded to surpass early 1980 numbers and dollars.
  From Motion Control Magazine April 1994: Robotics Industries
  Association said recently Robot orders jumped 40% through June, 1993
  as the industry posted its best opening half-year ever.... Net new
  orders received by U.S. based robotics companies totalled 3,640 robots
  valued at $306.2 million, the highest unit and dollar figures ever.
  From the New York Times, Wednesday September 7th pC1
  (paraphrased) In the late 1980's a steep decline in robot orders drove
  most US companies out of the business. In the first half of 1994 4,335
  robots with a total value of $383.5 million. Fanuc is the leader with
  about $360M in sales this year. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) is second with
  sales estimated at $120M. The next several are Japanese: Motoman,
  Panasonic, Sony and Nachi.
  The only major US producer to have survived is Adept Technology with
  about $50M in sales in a $700M market. The following table is
  interpreted from a graph in the article.
  Net new orders in US:
        Year    # of robots    $US
        1984    5800            $480M
        1985    6200            $380M
        1986    5400            $320M
        1987    3800            $300M
        1988    4000            $325M
        1989    4500            $510M
        1990    5000            $510M
        1991    4000            $410M
        1992    5250            $500M
        1993    6800            $630M
        1994    4335 (6 mos)    $383M (6 mos)

  From Industry Flash Vol1, No. 4, Dec 5, 1994:
  ANN ARBOR, Mich. - U.S.-based robotics companies are enjoying the best
  of times. The Robotics Industries Association (RIA) says surging
  demand recently led American robotic companies to their best
  nine-month totals ever.
  Through September, new orders totaled 6,218 robots valued at $548
  million, a 12 percent increase in units and 13 percent increase in
  revenue over the previous nine-month period last year. The greatest
  demand, says the trade group, is coming from U.S. manufacturers which
  are finally learning what the Japanese have known for years: robots
  can play a significant role in improving productivity, quality,
  flexibility and time-to-market. But, even though demand is surging and
  the U.S. is the world's second largest robotics user with some 53,000
  systems, the Japanese have more than seven times as many robots in
  use, RIA says.
  Last-Modified: Sun Aug 11 08:49:43 1996
    [3]Kevin Dowling <>

                  [8] What companies sell or build robots?
  [3][8.1] Mobile robot companies
          [4][8.1.1] AGV Companies
          [5][8.1.2] Underwater robots
  [6][8.2] Manipulator companies
  [7][8.3] Other Organizations doing robotics
  [8][8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots
  [9][8.5] Entertainment Robots
[8.1] Mobile robot companies

  There are a small number of companies targeting the research community
  for the mobile robot market. Helpmate, RWI, and Cybermotion have all
  sold and are selling mobile devices for research and real
  applications. There are a number of Automatic Guided Vehicle companies
  as well and their primary applications are factory operations.
  Companies manufacturing Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) are listed at
  the end of this section. Robot lawn mowers too!
  _Action Machinery Co._ One Vulcan Drive
    Helena, AL 35080, USA
    tel: 205.663.0814
    fax: 205.663.3445
  Severe-duty hydraulic robots and manipulators. Payloads from 65kg -
  7000kg. Primarily forge, foundry, and casting operations.
  _Applied AI Systems_
    Suite 500, Gateway Business Park
    340 March Rd, KANATA
    Ontario, Canada K2K 2E4
  Representing IS Robotics and Khepera (see below). MIT subsumption
  architecture style robots. Ghengis-II walker runs $8636.00 including a
  development system and downloading board, but without LISP.
  _Arrick Robotics _
    2107 W. Euless Blvd.
    Euless, Texas 76040 USA
    tel: 817.571.4528
    fax: 817.571.2317
    url: [10]www.
  R20 mobile robot platform for use by AI software developers. 3-wheel
  design, 14" wide, 14" long, 10" tall, 15lbs. 20lb payload. On-board
  controller connects to the user's laptop computer by cable or low-cost
  RF modem (RS232). Sensors include compass, tilt, wheel travel,
  temperature, light level, bumpers, battery status, etc. Price as of
  1/1/95 $2,900.00. Units in use at UTA Automation Robotics Research
  Institute. Send for detailed specifications.
  _Bell and Howell_
    Bell & Howell Mailmobile Company
    411 E. Roosevelt Ave.
    Zeeland MI 49464
    tel: 616.772.1000
    fax: 616.772.6380
    email: For now [11]
  Mailmobiles were developed by Lear-Siegler in the mid-70's for the
  industrial cleaning market. They decided to leave this market and Bell
  and Howell, the audio-visual equipment company, was refocusing on
  office automation products and picked up this product from
  Lear-Siegler. There are three models of Mailmobile, the Packmobile,
  the Sprint and the Trailmobile. About 3000 systems sold and about 2000
  probably in operation. They use a chemical trail that floureseces
  under UV light. Payloads up to a couple of hundred kg. Some systems
  have been operating for over 15 years.
  _Branch & Associates Pty Ltd_
    1153 Tasman Highway
    Cambridge, Tasmania 7170
    Australia (operating in Europe, Asia and America)
    tel: +61-02-485-807
    fax: +61-02-485-809 contact: Alex Vail, Division Manager
  Since 1979, specialist in autonomous navigation and guidance; products
  and technology for applications, research, and teaching. Conquerer
  series of fully autonomous AGV's, mapping system, non-accumulated
  error, accuracy 1cm, 1 degree, no environmental modifications, $12K -
  Fander: research and educational mobile robot. $5.5K includes
  everything: built-in software demonstrates in real situations numerous
  exmaples of roboti mobility technologies for teaching, research and
  teaching manual, stand-alone and remote PC modes, real time graphics.
    115 Sheraton Drive
    Salem VA 24153
    tel: 540.562.7626
    fax: 540.562.7632
    url: [12]Cybermotion Mobile Robotic Systems
  John Holland's company. Mobile K2 bases making use of ingenious
  torque-tube synchronous drive system. Security markets and research
  platforms, manipulators for base as well. Map building software too.
    31 Ontario Street
    Orillia, Ontario
    L3V 6H1 Canada
    tel: 705.325.6110
    fax: 705.325.8566
  Primary product are 'building blocks' for mobile robot development
  including controllers, sensors, softare and chassis'.
  _Denning Branch International Robotics_
    1401 Ridge Avenue
    Pittsburgh, PA 15233
    tel: (412) 322-4412
    fax: (412) 322-2040
  email: Soon. Messages to will be forwarded.
  Denning-Branch is a merger of Denning Mobile Robotics, once located in
  the Boston area, and makers of human-size mobile robots since 1983,
  and Branch and Associates, of Hobart, Australia, designers and
  builders of smaller mobile robots since 1979.
  Among the first products available is an MRV retrofit kit, which
  substitutes a modern Intel 80486 system with more power and a simpler
  interface for the 1985 vintage MC 68000 based controller.
          Small (~60x30x30 cm) 80486 based robot for educational
          purposes, with infrared and rotating sonar sensors,
          preprogrammed for several autonomous navigation tasks, and
          externally controllable via serial link. $5.5K
  MRV 1 &4
          Large (~90x90x120 cm) heavy payload capacity synchro drive
          robot, with optional sonar ring and laser nav sensors and
          software. $13.5K
          Robot-mounted scanning infrared laser unit that uses wall
          mounted bar-coded retroreflectors or active transponders to
          navigate to centimeter precision in 10-meter-scale areas. $8K
          Small-scale revolving sonar head with 4 sonar units and
          software. $3K
  Sonar Ring
          MRV-scale belt of 24 sonar units and driving hardware and
  _General Robotics_
    14618 W. 6th Avenue
    Suite 150
    Golden, CO 80401
    tel: 800.422.4265 (US and Canada)
    tel: 303.277.1574
    fax: 303.277.0310
  RB5X mobile robot for educational use. Developed in the early 80's and
  has been sold for many years. Similar to design and market for
  Heathkit robots. RB5X is $2995. Also sell base unit without wheels and
  shell board mounted for experimentation or building your own robot:
  $1995. A variety of other options including sensors, cameras, radio
  link and software for for Mac, Apple II and PC's are available.
  Educational curriculum workbooks and manuals are also available
  _HelpMate Robotics (formerly TRC)_
    Shelter Rock Lane
    Danbury, CT 06810
    tel: 203.798.8988
    fax: 203.791.1082
    [13]Helpmate Home Page
  Labmate research platform - $7500, plus additional optional sensors
  etc. Other products for hospital markets and floor cleaning machines.
  (Helpmate and RoboKent respectively)
  _IS Robotics_
    Suite 6, 22McGrath Hwy
    Somerville, MA 02143
    tel: 617.629.0055
    fax: 617.629.0126
    url: [14]
    * R-3, wheeled robot, $14K
    * Genghis II, 15" walking robot, $8.6K
    * Pebbles III, tracked robot, $12.5K
    * Hermes - high end walking robot
  Robots use the 16MHz 68332 (68020 core) microcontrollers (except
  Ghengis). Robots include IR and bump sensing for obstacle detection.
  Pyro sensors and color camera with pan-tilt are optional. ISR also
  performs contract engineering (custom robots). Check the [15]ISR home
  page for more details.
    County Cork, Ireland
    tel: +353 23 49791, 49808
    fax: +353 23 49801
  Teleoperated bomb disposal vehicles in a range of sizes.
  _mecos Robotics AG_
    CH-8005 Zurich
    tel: + 41 1 445 11 35
    fax: + 41 1 445 11 34
    Contact: S. J. Vestli
  Company formed as a spin off of the Institute of Robotics, ETH wiss
  Federal Institute of Technology). "mecos Robotics" specialises in
  modular and adaptive robot manipulators and robot vehicles (mobile
  robots). All "mecos Robotics" systems uses the same type of
  controller, a VME based computer. This system comes with high level
  development tools, and for research institutions the systems have the
  advantage of being open. The overall goals of all "mecos Robotics"
  systems are flexibility and modularity.
  The mobile robot program from "mecos Robotics" follows this principle.
  The physical size and the mechanical configuration can be altered. The
  standard configuration has three wheels with air tyres and independant
  suspension. One wheel is used for steering and propulsion (imagine a
  kids tricycle). The overall size is 0.7 m (W) * 1.0 m (L) * 0.5 m (H).
  The price depends on configuration and starts around the 70.000,-
  Swiss Franks mark.
  _Nomadic Technologies_
    1060-B Terra Bella Avenue
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    tel: 415.988.7200 ext. 203
    fax: 415.988.7201
  Nomad 200 is an integrated mobile robot system with four sensing
  modules including tactile, infrared, ultrasonic, and 2D laser.
  Integrated software development package for the host computer includes
  a graphic interface, robot simulator and a library of motion planning,
  motion control and sensory data interpretation functions. Geared
  toward teaching and research in Robotics and AI. The Nomad utilizes a
  synchronous steering system (ala Cybermotion and RWI). Speeds up to .5
  meters/second and onboard battery power.
  Nomad 200 Mobile Base $10,000
  Nomad 200 Control System $ 6,000
  Sensus 100 Tactile Sensing System $ 1,500
  Sensus 200 Fixed Sonar System $ 2,500
  Sensus 500 Structured Light Vision System $ 7,000
  RF Modem Kit $ 2,000
  Digital Compass $ 450
    Via Valdilocchi 15
    19136 La Spezia ITALY
    tel: +39 187 58 2843
    fax: +39 187 58 2669
    contact: Gian Carlo Caligiani, Robotic Systems Office
  OTO MELARA R.2.5.Robotized System
          The Robotized R.2.5 (R.2.5.R) Project aims at prototyping a
          mobile robot for intervention in hostile environments. The
          system is composed by three main units: the transportable
          control station, the radio communication set and the mobile
          robot based on an armoured, diesel propelled, wheeled platform
          called R.2.5. Gorgona, produced by OTO MELARA. Robot can be
          remotely controlled via full-duplex radio link. Can be
          teleoperated and provides supervised modes as well. Speeds from
          30cm/sec to 30km/h. As of May 1994 the locomotion system and
          teleoperated system are complete. Additional functionality in
          the form of supervised and autonomous operation are planned.
  _Poulan/Weed Eater_
    c/o Robotic Solar Mower Dept.
    PO Box 91329
    Shreveport, LA 71149-1329
    tel: 318.687.0100 X3939
  [Boiled out of their press release - Gareth Branwyn] The Robotic Solar
  Mower is a 5.6kg (12.5lb). automated solar-powered "lawn groomer." It
  uses a wire boundary system to keep it inside the mowing area. It runs
  continuously when the sun shines. Its operation is "virtually noise
  free." It continues on its constant mowing course, taking between
  several hours and several days to complete a grooming cycle (depending
  on size of yard, obstacles, etc.). Instead of cutting 1/3 of the grass
  blades (as in a conventional mower), it only trims the tips. It can
  handle a yard up to 1250m^2 (13,500 ft^2) and has a slope tolerance of
  15-20 degress. A pilot program is currently offering the mower in the
  US for $2,000.
  _Real World Interface (RWI) _
    PO Box 375
    32 Fitzgerald Drive
    Jaffrey, NH 03452
    tel: 603.532.6900
    fax: 603.532.6901
    net: [16]
    [17]RWI homepage
  RWI manufactures the B14 (an evolved B12) and B21 Mobile Robot
  Systems, and in collaboration with ActivMedia, Inc. and Kurt Konolige
  of SRI, the newer, low-cost, Pioneer 1 Mobile Robot.
  Recently redesigned, the B14's 35.5 x 61cm (14" x 24") (d x h) Synchro
  Drive Base now has built-on, tool-less access Smart Panels(tm) with
  tactile sensors, a 192-watt hr, hot-swappable battery power system for
  continuous service, and carries up to a 9kg (20 lb) payload. New B14
  Enclosure mounts on top the Base and hosts Linux computer system,
  complete with RWI's RAI robotics servers and client development
  software libraries. Full range of IR, sonar, and tactile sensors
  included (seamless 360-degrees, top-to-bottom bump protection).
  RWI's flagship robot -- the B21 -- is for mobile autonomous research
  and commercial applications. The 53x30cm (21" x 12") (d x h) 4-wheel
  drive B21 Synchro Drive Base carries a payload of 190kg (200 lbs) and
  has 1500-watt hours of independent battery power, hot-swappable for
  continuous service. The B21 Enclosure mounts on top the Base and hosts
  two internal computers plus a console laptop, all integrated via an
  onboard Ethernet, Linux OS, and RWI's RAI robotics software. Smart
  Panels(tm) around give easy access to Base and Enclosure equipment and
  host a full range of IR, sonar, and tactile sensors. Optional
  four-axis arm has gripper and 360-degree wrist, and mounts inside
  Both the B14 and B21 Mobile Robots come with a variety of accessories,
  including a newly released stereo vision system and other video
  options, radio Ethernet, compass, text-to-speech interface, and more.
  Released Summer '95 at IJCAI, the Real World/ActivMedia/Konolige
  [18]Pioneer 1 Mobile Robot is targeted for research and training where
  affordability (under $2500!) and many platforms are required. Based on
  the popular and winning (AAAI '94) Flaky, Pioneer 1 has a
  position-accurate 2-wheel drive in a 46 x 35.5 x 23cm (18x14x9") (l x
  w x h) chassis, which also carries a 84 watt-hr powerpack and hosts
  seven sonars. The custom on-board 68HC11-based controller runs a suite
  of robotics servers accessible via onboard serial port by piggyback
  laptop or basestation computer client software running SRI's Saphira
  software for research in multiple-intelligence and interactive
  behaviors. Client libraries and a simulator are included to assist
  application development. Fast-Track Vision System, based on [19]Newton
  Labs' Cognachrome Vision System now available for Pioneer 1.
  Manipulation gripper, vision system, experimenter's modules, and
  supporting textbooks by Dr. Kurt Konolige to come.

(B14) B14 Base w/ tactile Smart Panels(tm)            $8,500
      B14 Enclosure w/ full sensor array              $6,000
      B14 Pentium (100/16/540MB)*                    $2,850+/-
      B14 Power Station                                $400

(B21) B21 Base w/ tactile & IR Smart Panels(tm)  $19,500
      B21 Enclosure w/ full sensor array            $11,500
      B21 Four-Axis Arm                              $18,250
      B21 Pentium (133/32/1200)*                      $4,125+/-
      B21 Pentium Console (100/16/540/28cm screen)    $4,350+/-
      B21 Power Station                              $1,500

(Acc) Pan-Tilt Head                                  $1,950
      PCI-based Video Frame Grabber                    $950
      CCD Cameras (color  & B &W)          $931-$1,375
      Radio Links (RS-232  & Ethernet)          $595-$5,390
      Digital Navigation Compass                        $850

(New) Basic Robot                                    $2,495
      Fast-Track Vision System                        $2,995**
      Gripper                                          $750
      ComRad RS-232 Radio                              $595
      Experimenter's Module                            $200

  * All Bxx computers come with Linux and RWI RAI software installed and
  with Ethernet networking. ** Introductory price good through May,
    114 Union Valley Road
    Oak Ridge, TN 37830
    tel: 615.483.0228
    fax: 615.483.1426
  The ANDROS line of teleoperated mobile robots. These were designed to
  be useful in the nuclear industry and in other hazardous applications,
  and are very rugged. You can hose them down. Available in a range of
  sizes, with a variety of optional attachments, such as video cameras,
  arms, etc.
  _TAG Technology_
    5 Bowlands Mill, Dispensary Street
    Alnwick, Northumberland, NE661LN, UK
    tel: +44 655 604895
    fax: +44 665 510624
    net: [20]
  A variety of small modular mobile robots, sensors and controllers.
    * Frank - a tracked vehicle. Cost $UK 3198
    * Igor - a small quadraped walking machine. $UK 2238
    * Sensors - ultrasound and IR. $UK 144 - 318 depending on model.
    * Neural modeling system - single eurocard board for neural work.
  _Visual Inspection Technologies_
    27-2 Ironia Road
    Flanders, NJ 07836-9124
    tel: 201.927.0033
    fax: 201.927.3207
  VIT specializes in remote visual and ultrasonic testing but sells or
  rents a small tracked rover for inspection work. Products include
  ROVVER, SPOT, and PIPECAT vertical pipe crawler. VIT also makes
  miniature remote pan and tilt devices.
  _Yamazaki Construction Company_
    Intelligent Robot Lab
    Kaika Building
    2-7-1 Sotokanda
    Chiyoda-ku 101 Tokyo
    tel: 81-3-5256-0715
  LR1 robot - small research robot, basically a VME cage on wheels with
  some ultrasonic sensors and a nice constant force suspension. Has
  shown up at IEEE R &A conferences $30K.
  _RoboSoft SA_
    6, allee Paul Cezanne
    93360 Neuilly Plaisance
    tel: +33 1 4944 3035
    fax: +33 1 4944 3297
[8.1.1] AGV Companies

  AGV's are Automatic Guided Vehicles. They are common in factory
  automation and usually consist of mobile platforms for transporting
  goods and materials within factories. Most still use buried wires for
  guidance, but several vendors have or will have off-wire capabilities.
  AGV subsystems can also be useful in building mobile bases. Wheel
  modules can be purchased that already include hub, tire, motor,
  bearings, suspension and sometimes steering as well as drive.
  The first AGV was installed by the Cravens Company at Mercury Motor
  Express in Columbia, SC in 1954. The use of AGV's did not take off
  however and even by the early 80's the investment by US firms in AGV's
  was less than $70M. However, several European companies took hold of
  the idea and rapidly evolved it. The industry in the US peaked in 1985
  at about $175M and is slowly recovering. -- From Modern Materials
  Handling - 4/96
  _AGV Products_
    9307-E Monroe Road
    Charlotte, NC 28270-1485
    tel: 704.845.1110
    fax: 704.845.1111
  Controls and components for AGV's. Supplier of Schabmuller
  motor-in-wheel drives.
  _BT Systems_
    7000 Nineteen Mile Road
    Sterling Heights, MI 48314
    tel: 313.254.5200
    fax: 313.254.5570
  Automated Handling Systems (Formerly Volvo Automated Systems)
  _Caterpillar Industrial (now FMC)_
    5960 Heisley Road
    Mentor, OH 44060
    tel: 216.357.2935
    fax: 216.357.4410
  Manufacturer and distributor of fork lift trucks and guided vehicles.
  Cat's SGV's use rotating laser scanner and barcodes as opposed to
  traditional wire-guided systems.
  _Control Engineering Company_
    Jervis Webb Company
    34375 W. Twelve Mile Road
    Farmington Hills, MI 48331-5624
    tel: 313.553.1220
    fax: 313.553.1253
    515 East 100 South
    PO Box 45425
    Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0425
    tel: 801.530.4000
    fax: 801.530.4243
  AGV's and integrated systems
    4205 St. Clair Avenue
    Cleveland, OH
    tel: 216.881.6200
    fax: 216.391.7708
  Designs/manufactures rider style, electric, fork and platform mobile
  material handling equipment. Line includes AGV's, high tonnage
  capacity. Mobile cranes, explosion proof forklifts.
  _Eskay Corporation_
    563 West 500 South
    Bountiful, UT 84010
    tel: 801.295.5315
    fax: 801.299.9990
  Automated material handling systems including AGVS.
  _Fata Automation_
    37050 Industrial Road
    Livonia, MI 48150
    tel: 313.462.0678
    fax: 313.462.0997
  Sales and service of AGVs.
  _FMC Corporation_
    400 Highpont Drive
    Chalfont, PA 18914
    tel: 215.822.4300
    fax: 215.822.4342
  AGVs, Automated Handling Systems, Consulting, Trolley and Power and
  Free Converyors, Tow lines, Integrated Systems and Controls, Roll
  Handling Equipment.
  _Frog Navigation Systems b.v._
    Cartesiusweg 120
    3435 BD Utrecht
    The Netherlands
    tel: (+31) 30 244 05 50
    fax: (+31) 30 244 07 00
    contact: Leo Lans
    1091 Centre Road, Ste 170
    Auburn Hills, MI 48326
    tel: (+1) 810 377 4000
    fax: (+1) 810 377 4004
    contact: Charles Rouse - dir of marketing and sales
  FROG makes AGVs and AGV navigation systems that utilize infrastructure
  components to accurately determine AGV position. FROG, and the
  SuperFROG AGV supervisory software, are used in both 'traditional' and
  'non-traditional' AGV Markets. Traditional applications include
  manufacturing and warehousing. Non-traditional applications include
  container handling, personnel transport, mining and military use. FROG
  will fit any vehicle and can be used in any environment from
  clinically clean warehouses to weather beaten dockyards.
  Articles on Frog are in 'Automation' February 1991 or in 'Modern
  Materials Handling', December 1994 P.46.
  _IDAB Incorporated_
    1 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
    PO Box 8157
    Hampton, VA 23666
    tel: 804.825.2260
    fax: 804.825.9307
  Automatic handling systems and AGV's
  _Mannesmann Demag Corporation_
    29201 Aurora Road
    Cleveland, OH 44139-1895
    tel: 216.248.2400
    fax: 216.248.3086
  Overhead cranes, wire rope and chain hoists, AGV systems, automatic
  storage and retrieval systems, monorail, aircraft maintenance
  _Mentor AGVS Products_
    8500 Station Street
    PO Box 898
    Mentor, OH 44060
    tel: 216.255.4051
    fax: 216.255.3430
  AGV systems and automated transfer cars.
  _Munck Automation Technology_
    161 Enterprise Drive
    Newport News, VA 23603
    tel: 804.887.8080
    fax: 804.887.0558
    url: [21]
  Manufacturer and integrator of automated material handling systems.
  AGVS of many configurations (unitload, forklift, towing)
  _The Raymond Corporation_
    South Canal Street
    PO Box 130
    Greene, NY 13778
    tel: 607.656.2311
    fax: 607.656.9005
  Material handling equipment.
  _Roberts Sinto Corporation_
    3001 West Main Street
    PO Box 40760
    Lansing, MI 48901-7960
    tel: 517.371.2460
    fax: 517.372.4930
  MGV's (Mechanically guided vehicles)
  _Professional Materials Handling Co, Inc._
    4203 Landmark Drive
    Orlando, FL 32817
    tel: 305.677.0040
  Steinbock fork trucks. Wire guided, use regenerative braking.
  _Saurer Automation Systems_
    Saurer Automation Systems
    11818 James Street
    Holland, MI 49424-9658
    tel: 616.393.0101
    fax: 616.393.0331
    Holland, MI
  Saurer was formerly Litton Industrial Automation and is a full service
  material handling company.
[8.1.2] Underwater robots

  [new section, need more information]
  There are a number of companies building underwater remotely operated
  vehicles (ROV's).
  _[22]R.O.V. Technologies, Inc_
    Franklin Road, Vernon, Vermont 05354
    tel: 802.254.9353
    net: [23]
  Nuclear Underwater Equipment, Sales and Service
    * Hydrovision Tel UK ? 224-740145
    * Benthos Tel US 1-800-446-1222
    * JW Fishers Tel US 1-800-822-4744
    * Sutec Tel Sweeden ? 46-13-15-80-60
    * Rovtech Tel Uk ? 229-813641
    * Deep Ocean Engineering Tel US 501-562-9300
    * UWI Tel UK ? 224-896913
[8.2] Manipulator companies

  This is only a partial list of manipulator manufacturers. A wide
  variety of arms and arm components are made by these vendors and other
  _Adept Technology_
    150 Rose Orchard Way
    San Jose, CA 95134
    tel: 408.432.0888
    fax: 408.432.8707
    url: [24]
  High speed direct-drive and harmonic-drive SCARA style arms. 0.001"
  (.025mm) repeatabiliy. Payloads from 4-25kg Can be used in clean room
  and food applications as well. Adept also sells vision systems and
  _AEA Technology_
  AEA is the commercial division of the UK Atomic Energy Authority.
  markets the NEATER series telerobots for decommssioning in the nuclear
  industry. The system includes a bilateral input device and active
  (autonomous) force control.
  The system can deploy drills, reciprocating saws, nibblers, grippers
  for insertions etc. Larger range of robots including the AEA
  Technology 200 Kg arm, use filtering compliance to avoid damage to the
  robot when deploying heavy duty dismantling tools.
  _Antenen Research_
    PO Box 95
    Hamilton, OH 45012
    tel: 800.323.9555
    tel: 513.887.4700
    fax: 513.887.4703
  New and used robots for manufacturing, research and training. Used at
  savings of 40% - 70%. Also lots of parts and accessories.
  _Asea Brown Boveri (ABB), Vesteraas, Sweden_
    ABB Robotics
    2487 South Commerce Drive
    New Berlin, WI 53151
    tel: 414.785.3400
    fax: 414.789.9235
  Now own Cinncinatti Milacron robotics group, Graco and Trallfa. ABB
  Robotics is part of a ABB, large swiss-based company, with Many types
  of larger industrial robots. Many are optimized for painting, welding
  and sealant applications.
  _Comau - Italy_
    Via Rivalta 30
    10095 Grugliasco
    Torino, Italy
    tel: 011 33341
    fax: 011 7809156
  A variety of industrial manipulators ranging in payloads from 6kg to
  125kg. All electric AC drives. One of the novel designs is a 6DOF,
  12kg payload robot The SMART-3 6.12 R. It uses a carbon fibre forearm,
  absolute resolver feedback and 0.15mm repeatability.
  _CRS Plus,_
    5344 John Lucas Drive
    Burlington, Ontario
    Canada L7L 6A6
    tel: 905.332.2000
    fax: 905.?
  Sells several manipulators. 5-DOF around $25K, 6DOF around $33K. Sell
  end-effectors as well (electric, vacuum and penumatic) Wrist can be
  bought separately. Controllers use RAPL, a VAL-like language. Fairly
  open architecture. 3Kg payloads +/- 0.05mm repeatability.
  _Eshed Robotics_
    Eshed Robotec
    Israel (HQ)
    tel: 03-498136
    fax: 03-498889
  In the US
    Eshed Robotec Inc.
    445 Wall St.
    Princeton, NJ 08540-1504
    tel: 609.683.4884
    tel: 800.777.6288
    Eshed Robotec BV
    Oude Torenweg 29
    5388 RK Nistelrode
    The Netherlands
    tel: +31.412.611476
    fax: +31.412.613185
    net: [25]
    url: [26] and [27]
    Eshed makes a variety of robot manipulators for education, training
    and instructional use. This includes a half-dozen manipulator
    products, vision systems and a variety of machining and
    manufacturing systems. Eshed has sold over 8000 robots for training
    and education.
    Eshed has many dealers throughout Europe. Many dealers can be found
    at: [28]dealer list
    _International Submarine Engineering Ltd, ISE_
    1734 Broadway Street
    Port Coquitlam, B.C.
    Canada V3C 2M8
    tel: 604.942.5223
    fax: 604.942.7577
    url: [29] E-mail: [30]
    Underwater manipulators and teleoperated underwater vehicles.
    _Kawasaki Robotics (USA Inc.)_
    28059 Center Oaks Court
    Wixom MI 48393
    tel: 810.305.7610
    fax: 810.305.7618
    [31]KR Home page Kawasaki was the first Japanese mfg to lead in the
    production of industrial robots. They licensed the former Unimation
    line of robots and now make about a dozen types of electric arms for
    welding, painting and assembly.
    _Kinetic Sciences_
    3250 East Mall
    Vancouver, BC, CANADA V6T 1W5
    tel: 604.822.2144
    fax: 604.822.6188
    net: [32]
    Kinetic Sciences Inc. (KSI) provides technology innovation, research
    services and product development in the field of advanced robotics
    for operation in hazardous or menial environments. Our areas of
    expertise include: innovative robotic mechanisms (such as our
    Tentacle robot arm), computer vision (6 DOF position measurement and
    automatic inspection), advanced sensors, and autonomous control. For
    further information check out our web pages at: [34]KSI
    Construction Robotics Department
    contact: Shigeo Ohno
    fax: 81.44-288-6177 (japan)
    url: [35]
    The LM15-1 mini crane is a compact and portable electrically powered
    manipulation system. The device can be transported in a van and can
    be easily moved up and down stairs by rubber crawler tracks or
    winched vertically. The LM15-1 can work in relatively small spaces
    of 4x10m in area. It is powered by 100VAC, and has wireless remote
    control. Load specifications are 150kg at 3m. The telescoping boom
    can reach to 4m. It can be stored in a compact size of about 1m^2
    and can be split into two even smaller pieces to ease storage and
    transport further.
    See the URL listed above for more details and pictures. Price:
    Y3,200,000 (between US$25-32K depending on the exchange rate)
    _Kraft Telerobotics_
    11667 W. 90th Street
    Overland Park, KS 66214
    tel: 913.894.9022
    fax: 913.894.1363 Nice telerobotic arms for underwater work.
    _Labman Automation Ltd_
    Stokesley, North Yorkshire. TS9 5JY. UK
    net: tel:INT 44 642 710580
    url: [36]
    [soon to be] Contact: Andrew Whitwell
    Tailoring mainly gantry based systems for laboratory applications.
    Designs include storage systems, multiple manipulators, special
    probes, modification of instruments and laboratory equipment. PC
    driven stepper drives, linear drives, dc motors, pneumatics, all
    sensors, RS232 links, LIMS communication. Systems include powder
    feeding, wet chemistry analysis, microtitre plate handling and many
    _mecos Robotics AG_
    Technopark Zurich
    Pfingstweidstrasse 30
    CH-8005 Zurich
    tel: + 41 1 445 11 35
    fax: + 41 1 445 11 34
    Contact: E. Nielsen Spin-off of the Institute of Robotics, ETH
    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology). Modular and adaptive robot
    manipulators and robot vehicles (mobile robots). All mecos Robotics
    systems use a VME based computer as controller. The system comes
    with high level development tools, and are open systems. The
    manipulator's mechanical configuration can be changed at will
    (number and type of joints, length of links, etc.) Manipulators use
    linear aluminum extrusions with integral motions for joints. The
    controller accounts for configuration changes. With this principle
    of modularity and flexibilty hybrid force / position controllers
    have been realised on "mecos Robotics" arms. Price depending on
    configuration (50.000,- Swiss Franks and upwards). NTSC or PAL
    videos available for Sfr. 40 per tape.
    _Mitsubishi_ Mitsubishi PA-10 portable robot.
  7 DOF, with continuous path control
  Supposedly *open* control architecture, using PC
  30 Kg arm, 25 Kg controller, 10 Kg payload
    [I have no other information on this, anyone?]
    _Motoman [Hobart/Yaskawa]_
    Corporate Office:
    805 Liberty Lane,
    West Carrollton, OH, 45449.
    tel: 513.847.3300
    Sales Office
    Dublin, OH
    tel: 614.718.6200 Large industrial manipulators for welding,
    painting, palletizing, dispensing, etc. Can be floor, ceiling or
    wall mount units. Payloads for the 8 robots in the K-series range
    from 3kg to 100kg and repeatability of 0.1 to 0.5 mm over that same
    range. They are vertical jointed-arm type manipulators. (i.e. 4 bar
    linkage to reduce arm intertias). 3 S-series robots are SCARA-type
    manipulators with payloads of 50-60kg and varying workspace sizes
    Yaskawa also has bought the rights to RobotWorld, Vic Schienman's
    unique gantry design robot system. This system allow a number of
    mobile modules in the same workspace to zip around at speeds up
    80"/sec (3G accel). RAIL and C can be used in a multilevel
    programming environment. 0.002" Accuracy, 0.0005" repeatability.
    Neat stuff.
    _Oxford Intelligent Machines (OxIM)_
    12 Kings Meadow,
    Osney Mead Industrial Estate
    Oxford, OX2 0DP, UK
    tel: +44 (0) 865 204881
    fax: +44 (0) 865 204882
    contact: Dr. Peter Davey Incorporated in 1990, OxIM provides a
    complete design service in the related fields of industrial sensors
    and automation. OxIM is manufacturing and developing robots and
    advanced industrial equipment. The MAP-IT vehicle is an open
    architecture research vehicle for indoor environments. The top
    surface, complete with an array of mounting holes, is available to
    the user for moutning experimental sensors and payload. Two direct
    drive motor-gearbox units provide locomotion. An extended 3U rack
    contains a controller card and power converter drive card. A third
    spare slot is provided. 400mm diam with payload surface 200mm above
    ground. Remote base station including power supply, dual RS232
    ports, Full ANSI source code, 2 spare axes of servo control, bumper
    system, 10kg payload, 65W power supply. Several options are also
    available including PC interface.
    _Salisbury Robotics, Inc._
    20 Pemberton St.
    Cambridge, MA 02140
    tel: 617.661.8847
    net: Sells the three-fingered Salisbury hand and
    force sensing fingertips. Contact: Ken Salisbury,
    _Sands Technology International_
    Sands Technology International Inc.
    825 Highway 33, Trenton NJ 08619
    tel: 1.609.584.7522
    fax: 1.609.584.0239
    email: [37]
    contact: David Sands or Annis Monforte
    Sands Technology Ltd.
    Orwell House, Cowley Road, Cambridge, UK
    tel: 44 1223 420288
    fax: 44 1223 420291
    email: [38]
    contact: David Sands or Cathy George
    Sands has been making robots since 1989. Sands make 3 robots, a low
    cost 5 axis bench top articulated arm, a bench top cylindrical
    format arm and a modular Cartesian arm which can be quite small or
    quite large depending on customer needs.
    All the robots are low cost, driven by stepping motors with
    sophisticated controls. Fairly fast, fairly accurate, very reliable.
    The controller is open, and uses an extension of FORTH we called
    ROBOFORTH which has over 400 commands (not counting building blocks)
    See [39]Sands Home Page for more details including drawings
    dimensions, speeds, payloads etc.
    _Sarcos Research Corporation_
    390 Wakara Way,
    Salt Lake City, Utah 84108
    tel: 801.581.0155 Spinoff of University of Utah's Center for
    Engineering Design (CED). Teleoperated systems, manipulators.
    Audio-animatronic work as well. Beautiful force reflecting work and
    systems. High performance and small hydraulic valves and actuators.
    IP address:
    1632 Da Vinci Court
    Davis, CA 95616
    tel: 916.753.6718
    fax: 916.753.8092 Electro-mechanical engineering and manufacturing
    company specializing in telerobotics. Various remote manipulator and
    telerobotic manipulator systems.
    _Seiko Instruments_
    Torrance, CA
    tel: 310.517.7850
    fax: 310.517-8158
    url: [40]Seiko Instruments
    Seiko Instruments offers a complete line of industrial robots
    including SCARA, Cylindrical and Cartesian robots which are some of
    the fastest in the world. They also offer a point and click
    Microsoft Windows based Vision System which works with all our
    robots or as a stand alone system.
    _Sony Corporation of America_
    Factory Automation Division
    542 Route 303
    Orangeburg, NY 10962
    tel: 914.365.6000
    fax: 914.365.6087 Several SCARA type manipulators including a double
    armed manipulator. This model is used for the assembly of 8mm
    _Robotics Research Corp._
    P.O. Box 206
    Amelia, OH 45102
    tel: 513.831.9570
    fax: 513.381.5802 RRC offers a variety of dexterous manipulators
    which can be operated individually or in dual-arm mode. Their second
    generation, denoted the "i-Series", is lighter and provides great
    dexterity. They are currently building "spaceflight-qualified"
    manipulators for NASA (GSFC) using this new generation of their
    product. They have also been doing some work developing sensor-based
    automatic obstacle detection and avoidance technology which uses a
    patented algorithm with arm-mounted sensors. They have also built
    two massively-redundant 17-DOF Anthropomorphic systems for Grumman
    and JPL to serve as testbeds for researching "man-equivalent" robots
    for space applications.
    _Robotic Systems International (RSI), Ltd._
    9865 W. Saanick Rd.
    Sydney, BC V8L 3S1
    tel: 604.656.0101
    _UMI Microbot _[no longer in business in the US]
    In the UK:
    Oxford Intelligent Machines, UK
    tel: 0865 204881 Originally known as the Microbot teachmover. A
    small cable driven manipulator for desktop robotics. Excellent
    teaching tool. Original design by John Hill (now at SRI) Microbot
    was bought out by the British company UMI two years ago. In May,
    1991 they moved from Silicon Valley to Detroit, MI. As of Early
    1994, only the UK company was still in business.
    _USA Robot_
    PO Box 4018
    Portland, ME 04101
    tel: 207.761.9039 Maxym production robots for business. Simple
    accurate 3D linear motions coupled with power tooling such as
    routers, air drills and sanders. Workspaces up to 60cmx147cmx15cm.
    IBMPC software for designing parts and production path but takes DXF
    files as input. Not a machine like the giant production turning and
    routing machines used by large furniture makers but is a nice small
    machine for small production shops. Prices range from $14.5K to
    _Western Space and Marine_
    111 Santa Barbara St.
    Santa Barbara, CA 93101
    tel: 805.963.3831
    fax: 805.963.3832 Telerobotic manipulators for space and undersea
    _Yamaha Robotics_
    PO Box 956
    Broomall, PA 19008-0956
    tel: 800 92-YAMAHA
    fax: 610.543.8113 Yamaha makes HXYA series of light cartesian
    robots. AC brushless motors can move payloads up to 50kg at 1.4m/s.
    Aluminum extruded frames that are lightweight, rigid and easy to
    mount. Work envelope sizes from 250mm x250mm to 2050mm x 1050mm.
    _Zymark Corp_
    Zymark Center
    Hopkinton, MA 01748-1668
    tel: 508-435-9500 Robots for laboratory automation. Zymate Robots.
    Other companies: (no addresses, yet)
  Beckman Biomark
[8.3] What other Organizations are working with robotics?

    This list is a small fraction of companies and other organizations
    that are actively working in robotics. One way to obtain more
    companies is to search through proceedings of conferences or find
    member companies of many of the organizations listed in previous FAQ
    sections. Industrial robotics is used widely throughout a number of
    companies. Most large aerospace companies have groups working in or
    looking into robotics. Lockheed Martin (Denver), Rockwell
    International (Downey, CA), Boeing (Seattle) to name a few.
  Educational Organizations (Not Universities)
    _KISS Insitute for Practical Robotics (KIPR)_
    10719 Midsummer Drive
    Reston, VA 22091
    contact: Dave Miller
    tel: 703.620.0551
    fax: 703.860.1802
    net: [41]
    url: [42]
    KISS Institute for Practical Robotics is a private non-profit
    educational corporation. As an organization dedicated to promoting
    education and utilization of practical integrated robotics, KISS
    Institute provides an umbrella for conducting joint research
    projects, dispersing information, and teaching courses involving
    members from many different home institutions.
    _Computers, Robotics and Artists Society of Houston [CRASH]_ See
  Research Centers
    _Advanced Robotics Research Centre_
    Salford, UK. The Advanced Robotics Research Ltd (incorporating the
    National Advanced Robotics Research Centre, UK) is a joint UK
    Government and UK Industries funded research organisation involved
    in the research of enabling technologies for the advanced robotics
    _Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI)_
    7300 Jack Newell Blvd. South
    Ft. Worth, Texas 76118
    tel: 817.794.5900
    _Mechanical Engineering Lab (MEL)_
    Tsukuba City, Japan Kazuo Tanie: Robotics and cybernetics
    _Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), AIST, MITI._
    1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan.
  General description:
          ETL is a govermental institute with about 630 staffs and annual
          budget of over 10 billion yen including personnel expenses,
          covering a broad area related to electronics, physics, material
          sciences, device technology, energy technology, standards and
          measurements technology, bio-electronics, information science,
          computer science, computer systems, artificial intelligence,
          and robotics. Gopher host: [44]gopher://
  Robotics group:
          Intelligent Systems Division covers robotics and related areas.
          It consists of following sections; Intelligent Machine
          Behavior, Autonomous Systems, Computer Vision, Interactive
          Interface Systems, and Communicating Intelligence.
          The robotics group in the division foucuses on intelligent
          robots and system integration. Its current research topics
          include, but not limited to, Dextrous manipulation, Motion
          planning, Active vision, Multi-sensor fusion, Multi-fingered
          hands, Hand-eye systems, Mobile robot navigation,
          Multiple-robot cooperation, Intelligent teleoperation,
          Learning, and Architecture.
          The robotics group at ETL has continuously been at the frontier
          of intelligent robotics research.
  PostDoc positions:
          ETL accepts postdoctoral research fellows from all over the
          world. Mainly two support programs are available: STA
          fellowship and AIST fellowship. They require a doctoral degree,
          age no greater than 35, fluency in Japanese or English, etc.
          Typical research period is one year (2 yrs max.). The
          fellowship includes a basic allowance (270,000yen/month) plus
          family allowance (50,000yen/month), housing cost, and a round
          trip air ticket (1 person). The fellowships are highly
          competetive and have different application procedures depending
          on an applicant's nationality. Those who are interested should
          contact their local governmental agency for international
          research cooperation (such as NSF in USA). A more convenient
          way might be to catch a member of ETL staff at some conference
          and inquire about the fellowships.
  Graduate Summer Institute Program:
          ETL is a member of the graduate summer institute program. The
          robotics group hosts a couple of guest student researchers
          every summer. The Graduate Summer Institute program is based on
          Japan-USA contract on research cooperation in science and
          technology. It is open for graduate students in the USA who are
          majoring in science and technology fields.
          The aim of the program is to provide opportunities for the
          students to get acquainted with Japanese culture, science and
          techonology, and to promote future collaboration in research in
          science and techonology. Here is some data from last year's
        Period: 2 months (Late June -- Late August).
        Program (subj. to change): Japanese classes. Research at host
                institutes. Lectures, Meetings, Going to Kabuki, Kyoto
                tour, Official Receptions.
        Support: Return air ticket, domestic transportation,
                accomodation, japanese classes, tours.
        Contact: Japan Programs, Division of International Programs, NSF.
    _Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Groforschungseinrichtungen (AGF)_
    (Association of National Research Centers)
    Ahrstrae 45
    Postfach 20 14 48
    53144 Bonn
    tel: (02 28) 3 76 74-1
    fax: (02 28) 3 76 74-4 [45]
    These are sixteen research centers in Germany. One of the research
    centers is GMD and they do robotics. GMD is at
  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
    _NASA Headquarters_
    NASA Headquarters, Washington DC. Contact: Dave Lavery email:, URL: [47]Dave Lavery Home Page
    The ongoing NASA robotics research program develops autonomous,
    semi-autonomous and teleoperated systems and technologies for
    applications in Earth orbit and on planetary surfaces. Technology
    efforts are focussed on local autonomy, dexterous manipulation,
    task-level command and control, and contending with extremely harsh
    [48]NASA HQ Telerobotics Home Page
    _NASA Ames Research Center_
    Moffet Field, CA.
    I, TROV and Ranger projects. [49]
    _NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)_
    Greenbelt, MD 20771
    Contact: Stephen Leake Since the cancellation of the Flight
    Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), the Robotics Lab has been concentrating
    on work in the area of automated space craft servicing. The goal is
    to replace or supplement Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) with
    teleoperated or semiautonomous robotic systems for external vehicle
    maintenance. Current project includes a robot to assist in second
    Hubble servicing mission.
    _NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory_
    4800 Oak Grove Drive
    Pasadena, CA
    Contact: Chuck Weisbin, The JPL robotics efforts concentrate on
    development, integration and demonstration of A&R technologies, with
    a focus on plantary surface systems and autonomous mobile rovers.
    [50]NASA JPL Robotics Home Page
    _NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)_
    Houston, TX
    Contact: Charles Price More of an operations house but lots of
    shuttle RMS work. A number of robot projects including testing of
    space station manipulator systems happens at JSC.
    _NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC)_
    Robotics Group
    Contact: Bill Jones [52]
    Like JSC, KSC is an operations house with responsibility to keep
    shuttles flying and integrate payloads. There is a small but growing
    robotics group that is emplacing ground support robotics
    applications. Recent work includes filter inspector for launch pad
    payload areas, shuttle radiator inspector and a mobile system for
    thermal protection system tasks.
    _NASA Langley Research Center, (LaRC)_
    Hampton, VA Contact: Jack Pennington - vision, inspection, 3-D
    sensors [53]
  National Laboratories
    The US National Laboratories are large complexes with a number of
    robotics efforts. One current focus is the enormous and costly
    cleanup of the weapons complexes throughout the country.
    Remediation, removal and cleanup of hazardous materials will require
    hundreds of billions of $$$ and many years. Robotics will be a key
    in much of this.
    _Sandia National Laboratories_
    Albuquerque, NM Sandia is a DOE National Laboratory with a
    substantial program in robotics at its Intelligent Systems and
    Robotics Center. The Center has interests in manufacturing,
    hazardous material handling, site remediation, and research to
    support these applications. Consequently areas of focus include
    assembly planning, robotic interfaces, control theory, motion
    planning, sensor fusion, sensor development, mobile vehicles,
    telemanagement, mobile vehicles, and so on.
    At the time of writing (2/15/93) the center has nearly 100 full-time
    staff with degrees in computer science, mechanical engineering,
    mathematics, electrical engineering, as well as a few in other
    fields. The mix is about 30% PhD, 40%MS, and 30% BS. Recent hires
    have come from Cornell, Stanford, Berkeley, CMU, Illinois, Penn, ...
    The center operates over 20 fully equipted labs including robots
    from Puma, Adept, GCA, Cincinnati Millacron, and Schilling. The
    virtual reality lab includes stereoscopic viewers from Fake Space,
    audio, speech recognition and synthesis, and big boxes from SGI to
    drive the graphics. In addition to the normal complement of
    departmental computing we have use of other compute resources at
    Sandia including a 1000 node N-cube, a 1000+node Intel Paragon,
    several crays, a CM-200 (16K procs).
    Contacts: Randy Brost, Pat Xavier, Sharon Stansfield, Pang Chen,
    David Strip, Jim Novak, Ray Harrigan, Pat Eicker, Bob Anderson.
    _Oak Ridge National Laboratory_
    Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research
    P. O Box 2008, MS-6364
    Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6364
    tel: 615.241.4959
    fax: 615.574.7860 Contact: Dr. Lynne E. Parker, email:
    Research in mobile and manipulator robotics, including redundant and
    multiple manipulators, cooperating mobile robots, parallel vision
    systems, sensor fusion, laser range finder research, real-time
    quantitative reasoning and behavior based control, and machine
    learning. Current applications include robots for nuclear power
    stations, environmental restoration and waste management, material
    handling, and automated manufacturing.
    Researchers: James Baker, Marty Beckerman, Chuck Glover, William
    Grimmell, Judd Jones, Reinhold Mann, Ed Oblow, Lynne Parker,
    Nageswara Rao, David Reister, Phil Spelt, Michael Unseren.
  US Department of Defense
    _Air Force's Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE)_
    Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence
    450 Quentin Roosevelt Rd
    Bldg 183
    Kelly AFB
    San Antonio, TX 78241-6416
    url: [54]
    net: [55]
    contact: Steve Knauber [56]
  The mission of the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE)
  is to insert appropriate robotics and automation technologies into Air
  Force industrial processes. RACE accomplishes this mission by keeping
  abreast of current technology and recommending any technologies that
  may resolve present or future Air Force requirements. RACE is the link
  between industry, universities, the Department of Energy, NASA,
  technical societies, contractors and the Air Force.
  RACE is also responsible for providing organic technical expertise to
  the Air Force during integration of new robotics and automation system
  developments. RACE acts as a consultant throughout the entire
  acquisition process, providing technical evaluations from initial
  problem specification to implementation of proposed solution. RACE
  employee expertise, in-house test and evaluation facilities, and
  process studies are all used to support hardware transfer to the user.
  _[57]NRaD_ NRAD is the Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation
  Division of the Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center
  (NCCOSC), located in San Diego, California. NRaD and its predecessor
  organizations (Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), Naval Undersea
  Center (NUC), etc.) have been involved in various aspects of robotics
  since the early 1960's.
  Robotics research and development at NRaD are currently performed by
  two groups:
  [58]The Advanced Systems Division (Code 37): land and air robots
  [59]The Ocean Engineering Division (Code 74): underwater robots
  _Redzone Robotics_
    2425 Liberty Avenue
    Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4639
    tel: 412.765.3064
    fax: 412.364.3069
  contact: Dave White
  A spin-off of CMU, Redzone has focused on hazwaste and nuke
  manipulator applications but is also developing mobile applications.
  Primarily protoypes and not multiple unit manufacturing at this time.
  _Southwest Research Institute_
    San Antonio, TX
  Robotics and Automation Department
  Some large systems for servicing aircraft (painting, spraying,
  deriveting etc)
[8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots

  One of the most common discussions on the net are related to finding,
  building and working on small and low cost robots. There are several
  small robots on the market and a number of construction kits that
  robots can be built from such as Lego, FischerTechnik, Erector and
  Capsula. None of these require large investments. These systems are at
  most several hundred $US and can run on a desktop. There are also a
  number of kit robots that include printed-circuit boards and
  _Advanced Design, Inc._
    6080 N. Oracle Road, Suite B
    Tucson, Arizona 85704
    tel: 520.544.2390
    fax: 520.575.0703
  url: [60]Robix WWW Site
  ADI makes the Robix(tm) RCS-6 Robotic Construction Set, priced at
  US$550, or US$565 for 220V/50Hz and PAL video. The RCS-6 is designed
  specifically for use by educators and industrial modelers, and is used
  to build and operate a wide variety of PC connected desktop robots.
  Included are many construction parts, 6 hobby-type servos, an
  electronics interface with an 8-channel 8 bit A/D, power supply,
  software, manual, video, carrying case, and more, even including a
  pair of safety goggles.
  The 40-minute video that comes with the set is also available
  separately for just the airmail postage cost: US$3 to US locations, $4
  to Canada, $5 to Mexico and $8 to all other countries. Shown in the
  video are 5 different arms built for (and performing) 5 different
  tasks, a pair of 3-servo-each opposable fingers twiddling a ball, 3
  animatronic figures, and a 3-legged (but 6-footed) walker with both a
  walking and galloping stride. In addition, an arm is built
  step-by-step in the video, and then programmed interactively. The
  software includes a scripting interface as well as complete C and
  QuickBasic 4.5 libraries with documentation and sample code.
  For complete technical information, a faq section, text of a cover
  story about the RCS-6 in Popular Electronics Magazine, plus over 50
  image files (.gif's), a DOS PC .gif viewer, a useful section on what
  the set does *not* do, and more, download from the anonymous ftp site:
  [61] See the readme.txt file there
  To get the video, order by phone or fax, or by email from Visa and Mastercard are accepted.
  _Aleph Technology_
    Parc Heliopolis
    16 rue du Tour de l'eau
    BP 295-38407
    Saint Martin d'Heres cedex, France
    tel: +33 76422999
    fax: +33 76444620
  Small, turtle robot for education. 17000FF
  _Angelus Research_
    6344 Sugar Pine Circle #98
    Angelus Oaks, CA
    tel: 909.794.8325.
    contact: Don Golding
    net: [62]
  Angelus' line of robot products includes:
          Whiskers the Robot-A 13 pound rugged robot which is very
          intelligent and is very simple to program ($895).
          Advanced Whiskers-Two networked processors allow real-time
          collision avoidance and navagation ($1895).
          ARC-100 controller-Build your own intelligent robot($895) like
          Whiskers. Networkable. ARC-110 controller-Like above but has
          our narrow beam sonar onboard. Networkable.
          HiPower Board-Drive two 10 amp DC motors($195).
          MR-1-Series robot for the serious researcher or roboticist.
          Available March 1996. ($1995-$10,000).
          Heathkit Hero intelligent upgrade kit ($795) includes:
                1 ARC-110 controller
                1 HiPower Board
                4 6 inch Light sensor arrays
    Play-Jour International
    Room 914, New World Office Building
    (East Wing), 24 Salisbury Rd
    Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
  Capsula is a robot construction set. Looks like a series of bubbles
  connected together. Some intriguing modules including IR control,
  voice commands, motorized clutches etc. Edmund Scientific sells this
  as do many toy stores.
  _Circuit Specialists Inc_
    PO Box 3047
    Scottsdale, AZ 85271-3047
    tel: 800.528.1417
    tel: 602.464.2485
  Quickshut robot arm sold by Circuit Specialists for $259. Appears to
  be a nice low cost 5 axis arm for education. IBM (or compatible)
  interface, kit including all components and board, power supply kit,
  software package, logic probe and experiments and instructions. If
  anyone has information as to who actually makes this please send me
  email. CSI has a FAX back service at 1(800)622-5426. At the voice
  prompt, enter 3060 for more information on the arm. The software
  package supplied includes test routines and Robot control proceedures.
  The software is written in BASIC and Assembly languages.
  _The Electronic Gold Mine_
    PO Box 5408
    Scottsdale, AZ 85261
    tel: 602.451.7454
  Roamer Robot Kit. A simple, hardwired robot kit with all parts
  necessary to complete the kit. It sells for $39.95.
    Arthur Fischer GmbH & Co. KG
    Weinhalde 14-18
    D-72178 Waldachtal
    tel: germany 07443/12-487
    fax: germany 07443/12-591
    Model Technologies
    2420 Van Layden Way
    Modesto, CA 95356
    tel: 209.575.3445
    fax: 209.575.2750
    url: [63]Fischertechnik
  [UK] Economatics Ltd
    Epic house, Darnell Road
    Attercliffe, Sheffield
    United Kingdom
    tel: +44 742 56 11 22
    fax: +44 742 43 93 04
    telex: 5 47 095 ECOMAT G
  Like Lego, Fischertechnik is a european-developed construction kit but
  much more comprehensive in scope. Electro-mechanical parts galore
  including a wide variety of switches, relays, slip rings, contacts,
  etc. Many types of building block units as well and computer
  interfaces available. More expensive than Lego. Model Technology,
  listed above, is one distributor. See also the Robot Explorer in the
  publications section.
  Here is a listing of some of the kits that they build: Interface for
  Macintosh: "Service II" from Boenig and Kallenbach, sold by
    Pandasoft Uhlandstrasse 195 D-1000
    Berlin 12
    fax: 030 315913-55
  For DM 498.- for Mac Plus or better. 8 digital in and outputs, 2
  analoguous inputs. With Hypercard Stack Computing Experimental and
  driver software for all Pascal versions, 4th Dimension and Ragtime
  (comparable to MSWorks). Works also with the FischerTechnik Robot and
  Plotter assembly kit, 80 pages manual in german?, 3 Diskettes.
  There are also computing kits containing interfaces for C64, PC and
  Apple II.
  Profi Computing by Fischer Technik:
          "High-end" kit, 3 motors, 6 switches, 4 lights, 2 fotocells, 20
          plugs patch bay, construction base-support plate, 12 models
          explained as there are a robot with a controlled hand, a
          plotter, a slot-machine, a credit-card reader and a CD-player
          (certainly without audio out), 888 parts in total: DM 376,
          needs the Service II interface.
  Training robot by Fischertechnik:
          3 rotation axes which may be controlled simultaneously. Working
          radius between 12 and 37 cm, fetching height: 6 to 25 cm,
          driven by 3 Fischer Technik S-motors, positioning with infrared
          photocell, with cabling and manual, needs the Service II
          interface, for DM 547.
  Plotter/Scanner by Fischertechnik:
          Scanning head not included, "heavy duty" construction,
          precision less than 0.5 mm on a A4 surface, driven by 2 bipolar
          stepper motors, needs the Service II interface. For DM 487.-
  Computing by Fischertechnik:
          10 models possible, all explained: antenna rotor, Plotter,
          Graphic Tablet, 2-axis robot etc., needs Service II and power
          supply for DM 298.-
  One source for Fischertechnik that was claimed to be the best,
  cheapest and fastest source is Tim King. He stocks a full line of all
  the kits as well as the individual components, including repair parts
  or service.
    Tim King Electronics
    14595 Oceana
    Allen Park, MI, 48101
    tel: 313.928.2598
  _Graymark International_
    Box 2015
    Tustin, CA 92681
    tel: 800.854.7393
  Graymark sells a variety of electronic kits, like Heathkit used to,
  and some small robot kits that resemble the OWI kits. (see below)
  Currently they sell a small sound-controlled robot "Scooter" (601A), a
  line finder "blinky" (602A) , and a small programmable robot "Copycat"
  (603A) and computer interfaces for the Copycat (parallel, serial and
  microprocessor interface. Robots are from $19 to $57 and interfaces
  are $18-$41.
  _Johuco, Ltd._
    Box 390
    Vernon, CT 06066
  Muramator and Photovore. These are simple robot control boards that
  are hardwired but can be adjusted using potentiometers. They sell bare
  PCBs and you can get the parts from Radio Shack or DigiKey. The PCBs
  sell for about $25.00.
  _Khepera Support Team_
    LAMI - DI - EPFL
    INF Ecublens
    1015 Lusanne
    tel: ++41 21 693.52.65
    fax: ++42 21 693.52.63
    contact: Franscesco Mondada
  Web site is at [64]
  A VERY small mobile robot. Motorola 68331 Processor with 256K RAM and
  256 or 512K ROM. Serial port. Six 10bit analog inputs. DC motor
  powered with incremental encoders. Eight IR proximity and light
  sensors. NiCd batteries. Additional capabilities can be added by using
  stackable K-extension bus. Software environments: Calm assembler (PC
  or MAC), Gnu C compiler (on all machines supported by GNU) and LabView
  (PC, Mac or Sun).
    * Size: 55mm diameter, 30mm high
    * Weight: 70grams
    * Cost: 3000 Swiss Francs [About $2K US]
    * Vision and Gripper modules under development.
  See also:
  Mondada et al. Mobile Robot Miniaturisation: A Tool for Investigation
  in Control Algorithms. Third International Symposium on Experimental
  Robotics, Kyoto, Japan, Oct 28-30, 1993
    Lego Dacta
    555 Taylor Road
    PO Box 1600
    Enfield, CT 06083-1600
    tel: 800.527.8339
    fax: 203.763.2466
  Canadian office for Lego/Dacta: tel: 800-387-4387.
  LEGO Dacta is the educational branch of the LEGO company. Dacta sells
  the LEGO Technic product line. These are the geared and motorized
  versions for the LEGO system.
  Use anonymous ftp to obtain a list of a variety of lego information
  and application programs from:
          CAD/ contains several languages for specifying models
          faq/ contains latest faq sheet for
          games/ Rules for games using lego people and pieces
          images/ Pictures and drawings of sets and instructions
          sets/ Database listings of lego sets and catalog numbers
          upload/ Place your files here!
  Lego kits recommended for robotics work include:
  1038 Technical Universal Buggy - dual drive vehicle. $60
  1032 Technic II w/ motorized transmission - $76
  9605 Technic Resource Set - general parts kits - $200
  Lego-to-Mac software:
      Paradigm Software at tel:617.576.7675
      Bots at tel: 415.949.2126
  MIT has papers on LEGO projects available via FTP from:
      [66] The files are in
      memo8.* "LEGO/LOGO: Learning Through and About Design"
  _M & T Systems_
    POB 7816
    Huntington Beach CA 92615
    Contact M &T Systems at:
    tel: 714.969.3166
    fax: 714.969.3167
  [Tom Thorton] The HexWalker(tm) walking robot kit is based on the
  Insectoid built by Gary Malolepsy of The Robotics Society of Southern
  California (RSSC), and chronicled in the February, March and April
  1994 issues of Robot Builder (the newsletter of RSSC). The Insectoid
  robot was given passing mention by Scott Edwards in the June 1994
  issue of Nuts and Volts (How Far Can a Stamp Take You?).
  RSSC Club Officers had discussed kitting the walking robot up for
  members for several months, but had taken no action. Finally, I built
  one for myself. It generated so much attention at meetings that I
  decided to kit it out. The HexWalker(tm) robot kit is the result.
  As supplied in the kit the Hexwalker(tm) robot detects the world by
  means of two feelers. Normal movement for HexWalker(tm) is to walk
  forward using the opposing triangle gait. When the robot detects an
  obstacle (when a feeler switch closes) it pauses, backs up several
  steps, turns left or right, and resumes forward walking. HexWalker(tm)
  turns left when the right feeler switch closes, or right when the left
  feeler switch closes.
  HexWalker(tm) is large enough to work on easily. It measures 8 1/2
  inches (22cm) long (plus feelers), 6 1/2 inches (16cm) wide, and 2 1/2
  inches (6cm) tall. It is strong, able to support its own weight (12
  ounces) plus about an 8 ounce payload.
  Modifying the basic robot is encouraged. Ideas for
  modification/improvement include: Substitute LED photodetectors for
  the feeler/snapswitch sensors. Add a second Stamp to HexWalker(tm)
  that performs sensor monitoring functions. Add additional sensors to
    * Backup sensor to prevent walking into objects when walking
    * Down sensor to detect "cliffs" and prevent walking off edges.
    * Sonar for long range sensing."
          HexWalker(tm) sells for US $125.00.
          California residents add 7.75% sales tax.
          Shipping throughout North America is US $3.00.
          Shipping to all others is US $15.00.
          The kit without Basic Stamp (if you have your own controller)
          is US $100.00 plus s &h.
          The construction manual alone is US $10.00 plus US $1.00 s &h.
    363, avenue de Saint-Exupery
    In the US:
    888 Seventh Avenue
    New York, NY 10106
  Erector sets have been around for over 80 years and many interesting
  things can be built with these construction sets. There are several
  mechanical construction systems available. The best source of info
  I've seen is a list put together by Colin Hinz at
  The German model train company, Maerklin makes a Meccano compatible
  construction set. They also have a 1007 Robotic Arm kit and
  programmable controller as well. ~$300 You may be able to order it
  through a local train and hobby shop.
    524 San Anselmo Ave.,
    San Anselmo, CA 94960
    tel: 415.455.9330
    800.374.5764 (orders)
    fax: 415.455.9333
    800.455.9333 (orders)
  A wide variety of Nickel-Titanium Alloy products. Mondo can supply an
  email brochure as well as a Muscle Wire FAQ. Products include:
  Muscle Wire Project Book- New 3rd Edition. Presenting everything you
  need to successfully design, build, and operate devices with Muscle
  Wire - nickel-titanium filaments that actually contract when
  electrically powered and lift thousands of times their own weight.
  Topics include: Basic lever action, ratchets and latches, model
  railroad crossing, AC power circuit, solar power circuit, paper
  airplane launcher, life-like butterfly, rubber tube "flexi",
  proportional control, radio control interface, programmable multiple
  wire controller & serial port interface, PC parallel port interface
  and much more. Boris the six-legged motorless miniature walking
  BORIS - A miniature motorless six-legged walking machine
          Length: 13.5 cm
          Height: 4.5 cm
          Weight: 30 grams
          Power & Drive:
          - Eight 100 um dia. Muscle Wires (50 centimeters total).
          - 6 volts, 500 milliamp max.
          - Full software control via PC parallel printer port.
  Includes meter each of Flexinol 050, 100 and 150, plus crimps and
  instructions. Enough to build all the projects in the Project Book
  including Boris the motorless walking machine. An ideal starter
  package for engineers, students and experimenters of all ages.
  Project Book & Deluxe Kit 3-168 $59.95
  A complete package designed for corporate and laboratory Research and
  Development work with shape memory alloys. Includes the following:
    * Muscle Wires Project Book
    * Five meters each of Flexinol 050, 100 and 150
    * One meter of Flexinol 250
    * Crimps & instructions
  Muscle Wires R & D Package 3-102 $249.00 A wide variety of NiTiNol
  lengths and diameters are also available. Send email to
  _OWI (Movit robots)_
    1160 Mahalo Place
    Compton, CA 90220-5443
    tel: 310.638.4732
    fax: 310.638.8347
  Many educational toy store, hobby stores, and electronic parts stores
  carry these kits. Also available from:
          Jayso Electrnics 800.426.4422 or 212.798.1050
          Pitsco 800.835.0686
          Edmund Scientific 609.573.6260 (See Robot Parts Section)
          Hobbico 800.637.7660
  These are small toy-like robots that reflexively respond to obstacles,
  sounds or light depending on the model. They're cute and show what can
  be done with a relatively small amount of hardware. The top of the
  line model is the Wao II which has two 'feelers' for bump sensors and
  can be programmed with an on board key-pad or via a host computer. It
  sells for $89.95. Most of the other robot kits sell for between $35
  and $55. The kits usually only require mechanical hardware assembly
  (no soldering required.) Edmund also has a Robotic Technology
  Curriculum with lessons and tests featuring the Movit robots.
  Curriculum is $65 from Edmund Scientific.
  _Reality Robots_
    Marvin Green,
    821 SW 14th, Troutdale, OR 97060
    tel: 503.666.5907
  Starter Kits
  The B-BOT Frame:
          This is a complete robot frame with a 360 degree bumper skirt
          and clear head dome. The frame is six inches in diameter and
          uses two modified RC servos (not included). The B-BOT can be
          controlled by a small microcontroller, such as the BOTBoard,
          Mini Board, PIC or BASIC STAMP. The B-BOT Frame is expandable,
          flexible, and makes it easy to get your robot projects off the
          ground quickly.
          The B-BOT Frame and assembly manual is $29.95. The B-BOT jr.
          (smaller, with single level base) is $19.95. Please add $4.00
          shipping for first kit, $1.00 for each additional kit. Please
          make check or money order to Marvin Green at the above address.
  The BOTBoard:
          The BOTBoard is a bare printed circuit board designed for
          robotic applications. The BOTBoard uses the popular 68HC11
          microcontroller in a minimum configuration, and is easily
          programmed >from your PC. Engineered to be flexible, the
          BOTBoard is also powerful and easy to use. Each board measures
          2" X 3" and contains 38 I/O pins, and a small prototyping area.
          The BOTBoard is $5.95 each, or three for $15.00. Add $1.25 plus
          $.25 for each board for shipping.
          The ARMBOT is a flexible three axis robotic arm. It is designed
          to use small unmodified RC servos and a microcontroller. The
          ARM-BOT provides clockwise and counter clockwise rotation of
          greater than 180 degree, shoulder lift of greater than 45
          degree a gripper range of about two inches. The ARMBOT is
          surprisingly strong. It's fun to use, and can easily be build
          within a couple of hours.
          The ARMBOT kit and instruction manual is $12.95. Please add
          $2.00 shipping and handling.
  NOTE: These kits are designed to spark your intuitive engineering
  skills. Each kit comes with a detailed manual, assembly instructions,
  diagrams, parts list, and all the custom parts needed to build the
  kit. Common parts, such as RC servos or ICs are not included because
  they can be purchased elsewhere. Keep in mind that you may need to
  drill some holes or use a soldering iron. contains three gif images of the ARMBOT and B-BOT.
  Seattle Robotics Society BBS: (206) 362-5267
  I designed these kits to help inspire people to build robots. The kits
  are high quality and inexpensive. Please contact me for more
  _Rug Warrior_
    A K Peters
    289 Linden Street
    Wellesley, MA 02181
    tel: 617.235.2210
    fax: 617.235.2404
    url: [69]
  A companion kit for the book, Mobile Robots: Inspiration to
  Implementation. See [70]Books section of this FAQ. The Rug Warrior
  circuit board is designed to support the construction of small, yet
  sophisticated mobile robots. The board provides all the processing,
  memory, and sensor circuitry needed for a custom designed robot.
  $289.00. Does not include chassis, skirt and motors.
  Rug Warrior offers the following features: Motorola MC68HC11
  microcontroller, LCD display (32 alphanumeric characters), 32K of
  battery backed RAM, RS-232 serial port, Collision detection from any
  of 6 directions, Photoresistor light sensors, Infrared obstacle
  detection, Microphone for sound detection, Piezoelectric buzzer
  generates tones of arbitrary frequency, Motor driver chip allows
  control of two DC motors, Dual shaft encoders allow velocity/position
  control, Four user controllable LEDs, Optional pyroelectric (heat)
  sensor, Expansion capabilities for more sensors and actuators.
  The kit consists of a circuit board with the logic and interface
  components already soldered on and tested, plus all the sensors and
  other circuitry needed to build the robot board as described in our
  book "Mobile Robots: Inspiration to Implimentation."
  The kit includes Interactive C (IC) on a disk for either Mac or PC.
  Self test routines are also provided for each of the standard sensors
  and actuators. In the near future A. K. Peters plans to offer a
  complete robot kit including chassis, skirt, and motors.
  The "Mobile Robot Kit", Rug Warrior from AK Peters is now available in
  the "IBUKI Trading Post" on the WWW. The URL for the Trading Post is:
  [71]IBUKI The "Rug Warrior" can be found under "Toys toys from IBUKI"
  on the "Robots" page. More robot kits will be coming soon. If you want
  one listed please contact IBUKI. Questions or comments can be sent to
  IBUKI from the pages of the Trading Post or by sending email to
  The Stiquito is a small muscle-wire actuated robot developed by Jon
  Mills and his students at Indiana University.
  Stiquito is a small six-legged robot that you customize by adding
  sensors, controllers, power sources, etc. The robot provides an
  inexpensive platform to study computational sensors, subsumption
  architectures, neural gait control, emergent cooperative behavior, and
  machine vision. It is currently being used for research at IU, and, at
  a ratio of one robot per student, in "VLSI for Robotics" and "Machine
  Learning" classes.
  Stiquito is small (3cm H x 7cm W x 6cm L) and simple (32 parts)
  because its legs are propelled by nitinol actuator wires. Each leg has
  one degree of freedom. The robot walks up to 10 centimeters per minute
  and can carry a 9-volt cell, a MOSIS "tiny chip" and power transistors
  to drive the nitinol actuator wires. Alternatively, power and control
  can be supplied through a tether.
  After being innundated with requests for the unit, sales of the kits
  are now being handled by Robotic Systems. Robotic Systems offers a kit
  to build the Stiquto II walking robot The kit is $45 and includes a
  PCB for a PC-based controller (Mac version coming soon).
    [73]Robotic Systems, Inc.
    1102 West Glen River Road
    Glendale, Wisconsin 53217
    url: [74]
    contact: Clint Laskowski, President
    tel: 414.821.7675
    fax: 414.963.4825
  For more information including comprehensive technical reports on
  Stiquito, please see
  See [76] for an
  overview of Stiquito and the files at Indiana.
  Technical report TR 414 - _Stiquito II and Tensipede: Two
  Easy-to-build Nitinol-propelled Robots_ is available in FINAL DRAFT
  via anonymous ftp from [77]
  The report is archived as four .hqx (binhex encoded) .sea (stuffit
  lite self-extracting archive) Microsoft Word 4, 5 & 6, available on
  PCs. Macs should be able to read and print word 4 documents.
  _TSS Lynxmotion_
    Technical Service and Solutions
    104 Partridge Road
    Pekin, IL 61554-1403
    contact: Jim Frye
    tel: 309.382.1254
    net: [78]
    url: [79]
  TSS is Home of the Lynxmotion Robotic Arm. It uses Scott Edwards Mini
  SSC Controller.
    * 5 axis (base rotate, shoulder, elbow, wrist and gripper)
    * All axis' are closed loop.
    * Can be completely battery powered by a 9V and 6V battery.
    * Extremely easy to program and control with any serial port.
    * Can utilize a PC, single board computer, PIC or even BASIC Stamp.
    * Very fast, accurate and repeatable movement.
    * Available in three different configurations.
          _Basic kit_
          Includes all hardware, structural components, a 27 page
          detailed assembly manual with illustrations, and software. You
          will need to provide the servos and a Mini SSC servo
          Basic kit $60, additional $10 for software.
          _Level 2 kit_
          Includes all hardware, structural components, assembly manual,
          software, 6 servos and a Mini SSC servo controller.
          Level 2 kit $180
          _Level 3 kit_
          Completely assembled and tested robot ready to move.
          $255 with software included
  Please note that there are additional shipping charges. See TSS' home
  page or contact TSS for more details.
  _Tomy Armatron_
  The Armatron was sold by Radio Shack in the US and was a popular small
  plastic manipulator. A mobile version, the Mobile Armatron was also
  sold. A number of articles appeared in the hobbyist press regarding
  linking the Armatrons to computers. The Armatron is a clever, maybe
  even brilliant, mechanical engineering feat that uses a single motor
  to control all 6 degrees of motion AND the timer. The mobile version
  is still being sold in Japan and is called the "GO ROBO ARM" You might
  be able to pick one up at a flea market or garage sale. They have
  shown up again in the Fall of 1994 in Radio Shack stores. Buy it -
  they are neat, very clever, inexpensive and fun.
    * Computer Controlled Robot Arm, Jimmy Banas, Radio Electronics, pp.
      49-53, and 117, May 1985. The control requires the addition of 6
      DC motors, and machining of 'bearing blocks' to hold gears and
      align shafts.
    * Armatron: A Study in Arm Engineering, Mark Robillard, Robotics
      Age, Nov/Dec 1982, Vol. 4 No. 6, pp.40-46 (cover photo too)
    * Super Armatron, John J. Shiavone, Mike Dawson, and James E.
      Brandeberry, Robotics Age, Jan 1984, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 20-28.
  Myron A. Calhoun provided the following information on the Mobile
  The four batteries are wired in series; the center is reference, so
  there is +/- 2.5 volts to control the motor. Between the main body
  (which holds the battery) and the control head is a color-coded
  seven-wire flat cable. The BLACK wire is one side of reference; the
  BROWN wire is the other side of reference, and the reference wire
  color is WHITE. In the control head are two rheostats (ganged) to
  control motor speeds by controlling applied voltage.

color  |  Controls    |  Details


BLUE  | main    UP  | BROWN  (~250 ma.)
      | arm    DOWN  | BLACK  (~200 ma.)
      |              | This motor has a spring counterbalance to assist
      |              | "up" motion.  I did not disassemble the main arm,
      |              | but suspect there is quite a lot of gearing inside.
      |              |
ORANGE | wrist  UP  | BROWN  (~200 ma.)
      |        DOWN  | BLACK  (~200 ma.)
      |              | I did disassemble this arm, and there are SEVERAL
      |              | layers of geardown involved.
      |              |
RED  | finger CYCLE | BLACK  (~200 ma. when open, ~235 ma. closed)
      |              | The open/close cycle is caused by a cam.
      |              |
      | wrist ROTATE | BROWN  (~225-255 ma.)
      |              | A ratchet mechanism permits finger-cycling versus
      |              | wrist-rotation using just one motor.  When the
      |              | motor turns one way a ratchet locks wrist turning
      |              | but allows finger cycling, and vice versa.
      |              |
YELLOW | left  FORWARD| BROWN (~350 ma. when driven by itself)
      | drive REVERSE| BLACK (~350 ma. when driven by itself)
      | wheel        |
      |              |
GREEN  | right FORWARD| BROWN (~350 ma. when driven by itself)
      | drive REVERSE| BLACK (~350 ma. when driven by itself)
      | wheel        | When both wheels are driven in the same direction,
      |              | the total current draw is ~475 ma.  Internally, both
      |              | drive motors are actually in one unit; I suspect
      |              | there is some clutch interlock between them.

  I disassembled most of the body/forearm/wrist (but NOT the main arm)
  just for fun. Inside the main turret is a pedestal upon which is
  mounted a small PC card which terminates all wiring. Coming up from
  below are all seven wires from the flat cable plus several (thinner)
  wires from the battery compartment and the motors. They connect to the
  PC card IN THIS ORDER from left to right when viewing from the rear:
  Going up into the arm mechanisms are three wires, RED/WHITE, ORANGE/
  WHITE, and BLUE/WHITE, and associated with each is a white wire. In
  general, the wiring is color-consistent; the RED-with-WHITE-stripe
  wire connects to the RED terminal, the BLUE-with-WHITE-strip wire to
  the BLUE terminal, all of the WHITE wires to the WHITE (common)
  terminal, etc. But inside the base unit an ORANGE wire connected to
  one end of the battery (opposite the BLACK wire connected to the other
  end of the battery). I did NOT see a BROWN wire here as would be
  expected. Myron.
  _Ublige Software and Robotics Corporation_
    P.O. Box 18034
    Huntsville, AL, 35804-8034
    net: [80]
    url: [81]
    tel: 205.518.9422
    contact: Luis Lopez
  Kits and pre-assembled robot walkers (insects). USR produces
  Electro-Optic components and software tools for compound eye robotics.
  The catalog lists a low-cost walking system kit called Prometheus and
  Sparticus on the order of $1500 (US). A number of control and I/O
  modules are also available (eg. RS232 interface, data acquisition,
  motor control module, motor driver etc.) Leg units are also sold
  For USR's catalog, which includes a Video for Windows demo of their
  robots in action and a selection of research articles, please send
  check or money orderfor $3US within the United States or $7US for
  outside the United States the address above.
  _Zagros Robotics_
    PO Box 460342
    St. Louis, MO 63146-7342
    tel: 314.768.1328
    net: [82]zagros@Walden.MO.NET
    contact: Atha Jamar Neal III
  Zagros sells two robot kits. All you need to add is a CPU, and you
  have a fully functional robot. Zagros offers their own HC11 based
  processor board with 'C' compiler. The Mini Max has a maximum speed of
  about 22.5 meters/minute. Each drive motor generates 1.1 Nm of torque.
  The platform is 30cmx30cm 6mm thick industrial plastic. Zagros accepts
  check, money order, COD, Discover, Visa and Mastercard.
  Mini Max Robot Kit $129.95 (plus $15.00 shipping) This kit includes
  the following:
    * (2) 12 volt DC drive motors
    * (2) 15cm drive wheels
    * (1) caster wheel
    * (1) base plane 30cm x 30cm
    * (1) battery power supply
    * (1) motor driver kit
    * (1) book of project notes
    * (1) solderless breadboard
  MAX '96 ROBOT KIT $189.95 (plus $15.00 shipping)
    * (2) 12 volt DC drive motors
    * (2) 15cm drive wheels
    * (2) caster wheels
    * (1) base plane 41cmx41cm
    * (1) battery power supply
    * (1) motor driver kit
    * (2) pulse encoders
    * (1) book of project notes
    * (1) solderless breadboard
[8.5] Entertainment Robots

  While not quite in the mainstream of robotics research, there are a
  number of companies catering to mainstream venues using animated
  figures that are remotely controlled. These are often used to
  entertain people in restaurants, at shows and conferences,promotional
  events and at a variety of other types of gatherings.
  _The Robot Factory_
    3740 Interpark Drive
    Colorado Springs, CO 80907
    tel: 719.447.0331
    fax: 719.447.0332
    net: [83]
    url: [84]
  Robots for advertising, education and entertainment since 1966. The
  major product categories available from The Robot Factory include
  Talking signs, mobile robots, animated Musicians and customized
  Last-Modified: Mon Sep 9 09:49:48 1996
    [85]Kevin Dowling <>


  1. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/copyright.html
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  9. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/8.html#8.5
  13. url:
  24. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/http;//
  36. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/
  44. gopher://
  70. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/4.html#4.2.1
  72. mailto:
                      [9] What is a Robot Architecture?
  A robot 'architecture' primarily refers to the software and hardware
  framework for controlling the robot. A VME board running C code to
  turn motors doesn't really constitute an architecture by itself. The
  development of code modules and the communication between them begins
  to define the architecture.
  Robotic systems are complex and tend to be difficult to develop. They
  integrate multiple sensors with effectors, have many degrees of
  freedom and must reconcile hard real-time systems with systems which
  cannot meet real-time deadlines [Jones93]. System developers have
  typically relied upon robotic architectures to guide the construction
  of robotic devices and for providing computational services (e.g.,
  communications, processing, etc.) to subsystems and components. These
  architectures, however, have tended thus far to be task and domain
  specific and have lacked suitability to a broad range of applications.
  For example, an architecture well suited for direct teleoperation
  tends not to be amenable for supervisory control or for autonomous
  One recent trend in robotic architectures has been a focus on
  behavior-based or reactive systems. Behavior based refers to the fact
  that these systems exhibit various behaviors, some of which are
  emergent [Man92]. These systems are characterized by tight coupling
  between sensors and actuators, minimal computation, and a
  task-achieving "behavior" problem decomposition.
  The other leading architectural trend is typified by a mixture of
  asynchronous and synchronous control and data flow. Asychronous
  processes are characterized as loosely coupled and event-driven
  without strict execution deadlines. Synchronous processes, in
  contrast, are tightly coupled, utilize a common clock and demand hard
  real-time execution.
  Subsumption/reactive references
  Arkin, R.C., _Integrating Behavioral, Perceptual, and World Knowledge
  in Reactive Navigation_, Robotics & Autonomous Systems, 1990
  Brooks, R.A., _A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot_,
  IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, March 1986.
  Brooks, R.A., _A Robot that Walks; Emergent Behaviors from a Carefully
  Evolved Network_, Neural Comutation 1(2) (Summer 1989)
  Brooks, Rod, _AI Memo 864: A Robust Layered Control System For a
  Mobile Robot_. Look in [3]
  Brooks, Rod, _AI Memo 1227: The Behavior Language: User's Guide_. look
  in [4]
  Connell, J.H., _A Colony Architecture for an Artificial Creature_, MIT
  Ph. D. Thesis in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1989.
  Erann Gat, et al, _Behavior Control for Robotic Exploration of
  Planetary Surfaces_ To be published in IEEE R &A. FTPable.
  Insect-based control schemes
  Randall D. Beer, Roy E. Ritzmann, and Thomas McKenna, editors,
  _Biological Neural Networks in Invertebrate Neuroethology and
  Robotics_, Academic Press, 1993.
  Hillel J. Chiel, et al, _Robustness of a Distributed Neural Network
  Controller for Locomotion in a Hexapod Robot,_ IEEE Transactions on
  Robotics and Automation, 8(3):293-303, June, 1992.
  Joseph Ayers and Jill Crisman, _Biologically-Based Control of
  Omnidirectional Leg Coordination,_ Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE/RSJ
  International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp.
  (i.e., "traditional", "top-down", etc.)
  Amidi, O., _Integrated Mobile Robot Control_, CMU-RI-TR-90-17,
  Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1990.
  Albus, J.S., McCain, H.G., and Lumia, R., _NASA/NBS Standard Reference
  Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM)_ NIST
  Technical Note 1235, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, July 1987.
  Butler, P.L., and Jones, J.P., _A Modular Control Architecture for
  Real-Time Synchronous and Asynchronous Systems_, Proceedings of SPIE
  Fong, T.W., _A Computational Architecture for Semi-autonomous Robotic
  Vehicles_, AIAA Computing in Aerospace conference, AIAA 93-4508, 1993.
  Lin, L., Simmons, R., and Fedor, C., _Experience with a Task Control
  Architecture for Mobile Robots_, CMU-RI-TR 89-29, Robotics Institute,
  Carnegie Mellon University, December 1989.
  Schneider, S.A., Ullman, M.A., and Chen, V.W., _ControlShell: A
  Real-time Software Framework_, Real-Time Innovations, Inc., Sunnyvale,
  CA 1992.
  Stewart, D.B., _Real-Time Software Design and Analysis of
  Reconfigurable Multi-Sensor Based Systems_, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1994
  Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon
  University, Pittsburgh. Available online at [6]
  It's 180+ pages.
  Stewart, D.B., M. W. Gertz, and P. K. Khosla, _Software Assembly for
  Real-Time Applications Based on a Distributed Shared Memory Model_, in
  Proc. of the 1994 Complex Systems Engineering Synthesis and Assessment
  Technology Workshop (CSESAW '94), Silver Spring, MD, pp. 217-224, July
  Last-Modified: Sun Aug 11 08:50:22 1996
    [7]Kevin Dowling <>


  1. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/copyright.html
  2. file://localhost/usr/nivek/faq/HTML/TOC.html
aka: Kevin Dowling, <>    address:  Carnegie Mellon University
tel: 1.412.268.8830                                The Robotics Institute
fax: 1.412.268.5895                                5000 Forbes Avenue
url:              Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA
aka: Kevin Dowling, <>    address:  Carnegie Mellon University
tel: 1.412.268.8830                                The Robotics Institute
fax: 1.412.268.5895                                5000 Forbes Avenue
url:              Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA

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